Science Journal

 

 Cancer Biology

 

ISSN: 2150-1041 (print); ISSN: 2150-105X (online), Quarterly  

 
Volume 03 / Issue 03, Cumulated No. 11,  September 25, 2013
Cover, Introduction, Contents
 

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CONTENTS  

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Titles / Authors

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1

Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) in a cohort of HIV and Non-HIV-infected females in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

 

Frank-Peterside N, Okerentugba PO, Ndukwu J, Okonko IO

 

Medical Microbiology Unit, Department of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt, P.M.B. 5323, Choba, East-West Road,  Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria;

E-mail address: iheanyi.okonko@uniport.edu.ng, Tel: +2348035380891

 

ABSTRACT: UTI is the most common problem found in all age group patients. UTI has more prevalence in HIV-infected patients because of decreased immune status compared to Non-HIV infected individuals. The aim of this study was to find the prevalence of UTI in a cohort of HIV and Non-HIV-infected females and planning its treatment strategy based on etiologic agent. Clean catch midstream urine samples were collected from 100 female subjects comprising 50 HIV-seropositive and 50 HIV-seronegative females in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. The HIV-positive females consisted of 20 highly active retroviral therapy (HAART) – nave females and 30 subjects on HAART for three to six months. Most of the HIV-positive females had no signs or symptoms of UTI compared to HIV-negative females. Urine samples were analysed using standard methods. Microbial isolates were identified in urine and susceptibility tests were performed. The ages of the subjects ranged from 25-50 years. Of the 100 samples analysed, 37 had significant bacteriuria representing 37.0%. Among the 50 HIV seropositive females, 17(34.0%) had significant bacteriuria while among the HIV seronegative females (controls), 21 (42.0%) samples had significant bacteria growth. Bacterial uropathogens were significantly prevalent (42.0 vs. 34.0, P<0.05) among HIV seronegative females (controls) than HIV seropositive females. There was significant difference (40.0 vs. 25.0, P<0.05) in the prevalence of significant bacteriuria between HIV seropositive females on HAART and HAART nave females. Generally, Staphylococcus aureus 10(26.3%) was most predominant in the urine samples. This was followed by Klebsiella species 7(18.4%), Escherichia coli 6(15.8%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa 5(13.2%), Proteus species 3(7.9%), Streptococcus species 3(7.9%), Enterococcus faecalis 2(5.3%) and Staphylococcus epidermidis 2(5.3%). Among the HIV seropositive females, Escherichia coli 5(29.4%) was the most predominant while among the HIV seronegative females, Staphylococcus aureus 6(28.6%) was the most predominant. However, Staphylococcus epidermidis was only present among the HIV seronegatives. Also, Candida albicans 10(71.4%) was most predominant fungi isolates. This was followed by Aspergillus species 2(14.3%) and Penicillium species 2(14.3%). However, Aspergillus species 2(33.3%) was only present among the HIV seronegatives. High sensitivity to ofloxacin (85.7%), ceprox (85.7%), ciprofloxacin (78.9%), peflacine (76.2%), gentamicin (60.5%), lincocin (58.8%), rifampicin (58.8%), streptomycin (55.3%), augmentin (52.4%) and ampiclox (52.4%) was recorded. High resistance to nalidixic acid (90.5%), septrin (80.9%), chloramphenicol (70.6%), floxapen (64.7%), nrobactin (64.7%), erythromycin (58.8%), ampicillin (57.1%), ampiclox (47.6%), augmentin (47.6%), and septromycin (44.7%) were observed. In conclusion, urinary tract infection is a significant co-morbidity in females with HIV. This study reveals a high prevalence of urinary tract infections in a cohort of HIV seropositive females in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Thus, a high index of suspicion will lead to its prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment. Of particular importance is the sensitivity patterns of the strains of bacteria isolated, in which ofloxacin, ceprox, ciprofloxacin, peflacine and gentamicin were the most effective. This calls for adequate planning for UTI treatment strategy based on etiologic agent. Prospective studies are advocated to clarify whether these antibiotics confers some benefit in protecting HIV seropositive individuals against UTI.

[Frank-Peterside N, Okerentugba PO, Ndukwu J, Okonko IO. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) in a cohort of HIV and Non-HIV-infected females in Port Harcourt, Nigeria] Cancer Biology 2013;3(3):1-10]. (ISSN: 2150-1041). http://www.cancerbio.net. 1

doi:10.7537/marscbj030313.01

 

Keywords: Antibiograms, Coinfections, Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, HIV, HAART

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2

Leukemia Cancer

 

Mark H Smith

 

Queens, New York 11418, USA

mark20082009@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Cancer is the cells that grow out of control. Cancer cells can also invade other tissues. Growing out of control and invading other tissues are what makes a cell a cancer cell. Involved in more than 100 diseases, the cancer can cause serious illness and death. Normally, the cells become cancer cells because of DNA damage. This material is a literature collection of the researches on the leukemia cancer.

[Smith MH. Leukemia Cancer. Cancer Biology 2013;3(3):11-48]. (ISSN: 2150-1041). http://www.cancerbio.net. 2

doi:10.7537/marscbj030313.02

 

Keywords: cancer; biology; life; disease; research; literature; leukemia

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3

Ovary Cancer

 

Mark H Smith

 

Queens, New York 11418, USA

mark20082009@gmail.com

 

Abstract: This material is a literature collection of the researches on the ovary cancer.

[Smith MH. Ovary Cancer. Cancer Biology 2013;3(3):49-82]. (ISSN: 2150-1041). http://www.cancerbio.net. 3

doi:10.7537/marscbj030313.03

 

Keywords: cancer; biology; life; disease; research; literature; ovary

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4

Pancreas Cancer

 

Mark H Smith

 

Queens, New York 11418, USA

mark20082009@gmail.com

 

Abstract:  This material is a literature collection of the researches on the pancreas cancer.

[Smith MH. Pancreas Cancer. Cancer Biology 2013;3(3):83-147]. (ISSN: 2150-1041). http://www.cancerbio.net. 4

doi:10.7537/marscbj030313.04

 

Keywords: cancer; biology; life; disease; research; literature; pancreas

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5

Cancer and Parasitic Infection

 

Mark H Smith

 

Queens, New York 11418, USA

mark20082009@gmail.com

 

Abstract: This material is a literature collection of the researches on the cancer and parasitic infection.

[Smith MH. Cancer and Parasitic Infection. Cancer Biology 2013;3(3):148-170]. (ISSN: 2150-1041). http://www.cancerbio.net. 5

doi:10.7537/marscbj030313.05

 

Keywords: cancer; biology; life; disease; research; literature; parasitic; infection

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6

Cancer and Pregnancy

 

Mark H Smith

 

Queens, New York 11418, USA

mark20082009@gmail.com

 

Abstract: This material is a literature collection of the researches on the cancer and pregnancy.

[Smith MH. Cancer and Pregnancy. Cancer Biology 2013;3(3):171-211]. (ISSN: 2150-1041). http://www.cancerbio.net. 6

doi:10.7537/marscbj030313.06

 

Keywords: cancer; biology; life; disease; research; literature; pregnancy

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The manuscripts in this issue were presented as online first for peer-review starting from 8/21/2013. 
 
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