Science Journal



Cancer Biology


ISSN: 2150-1041 (print); ISSN: 2150-105X (online); Quarterly

Volume 4 / Issue 1, Cumulated No. 13, March 25, 2014
Cover, Introduction, Contents


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Titles / Authors /Abstracts

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Assessment of the Physico-chemical Parameters and Quality of Water of the New Calabar-Bonny River, Porthacourt, Nigeria


1Agbugui, M. O. and 2Deekae, S.N.


1 Department of Biological Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Nigeria,

2 Department of Fisheries and Aquatic Environment, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Porthacourt, Nigeria


Abstract: The physico-chemical characters of the New Calabar-Bonny River were investigated for two years to determine its water quality for aquaculture production and human domestic uses. Three stations were chosen to check for the variations in the selected waters parameters.  pH, Temperature, salinity, Dissolved oxygen, Alkalinity, Conductivity and Turbidity were analysed monthly from June 2011 to May 2013 using standard method s and procedures. The ranges obtained were found to be comparable to other Nigerian and African Reservoirs. Mean values obtained were: temperature 28.620.62oC, 28.370.7oC, 28.410.57oC, pH 6.360.34, 6.1938, 2.270.74, salinity 11.507.71 o/oo, 12.155.24 o/oo, 0.580.94 o/oo, and dissolved oxygen 6.880.51mg/l, 6.920.58mg/l, 6.880.63mg/l for stations 1, station 2 and station 3 respectively. There was significant difference in salinity level between the three stations, revealing that station 1 is a salt water area, station 2 is brackish/tidal and station 3 is predominantly fresh water. Alkalinity had a mean of 12.61 1.19mg/l. Station 2 recorded the highest alkalinity level (13.60 8.86mg/l) while station 3 recorded the lowest (10.93 10.37 mg/l). Station 1 had the highest mean TDS concentration (10128.2 9069.11 ppm) while station 3 had the lowest mean TDS concentration (2732.90 2644.01 ppm). Mean conductivity was 3752.74 257.58s/cm. An annual mean of Turbidity 9.81 3.74 NTU was recorded.  Station 3 recorded the lowest mean turbidity of 5.12 3.55 NTU while station 1 recorded the highest mean turbidity of 14.29 8.76 NTU. Turbidity was low in the dry season and high in the rainy season. This study concludes that the physico-chemical parameters of water of the New Calabar-Bonny River meet the recommended and obtainable state of the aquaculture production and for human consumption.

[Agbugui, M. O. and Deekae, S.N. Assessment of the Physico-chemical Parameters and Quality of Water of the New Calabar-Bonny River, Porthacourt, Nigeria. Cancer Biology 2014;4(1):1-9]. (ISSN: 2150-1041): (ISSN: 2150-105X (online). 1. doi:10.7537/marscbj040114.01


Key words: physico-chemical parameters, New Calabar-Bonny River, Salinity, Aquaculture production, water quality.

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Clinical Significance of ABL Kinase Domain Mutation in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia under Imatinib Therapy


1 Amr A.Ghannam, Abdou S. M.2 and  Mona Hatata2


1Department of Clinical Oncology, Tanta university hospital, Tanta

2Department of Clinical Pathology, Tanta university hospital, Tanta


 Abstract: Background: Despite durable responses to imatinib in chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML), mutations in Bcr-Abl kinase domain (KD) are known to induce imatinib resistance and cause poor clinical outcome.  Methods: We characterized Bcr-Abl KD mutations in 20 Egyptian CML patients with imatinib resistance (n = 12) or responsive (n = 8) using allele specific oligonucleotide polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and direct sequencing. The frequency of mutations in patients with increasing BCR-ABL transcript levels, and those with stable or decreasing levels was determined using allele specific oligonucleotide - polymerase chain reaction (ASO-PCR). Results: Six out of the twelve patients with primary or secondary resistance had detectable mutations, whereas none of the eight responders who achieved suboptimal, complete or major response had any detectable mutation. The presence of a mutation was significantly associated with a greater likelihood of subsequent progression to accelerated phase / blast crisis and shorter survival.  Patients harboring P-loop mutations showed poor overall survival compared with patients harboring non-P-loop mutations (93% vs 67% P=0.001). Conclusion: These data suggest that a rise in BCR-ABL transcript levels of > 2-fold can be used as a primary indicator to test patients for BCR-ABL kinase domain mutations and that ASO-PCR is a valuable tool allowing a timely detection of mutations. Moreover, early detection of BCR-ABL mutations may play a role in identifying patients who are likely to become resistant to imatinib therapy, for which alternative therapeutic options should be considered.

[Amr A.Ghannam, Abdou S. M. and Mona Hatata. Clinical Significance of ABL Kinase Domain Mutation in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia under Imatinib Therapy Cancer Biology 2014;4(1):10-17]. (ISSN: 2150-1041): (ISSN: 2150-105X (online). 2. doi:10.7537/marscbj040114.02


Keywords: chronic myeloid leukemia, imatinib mesylate, BCR-ABL dependent mechanisms, tyrosine kinase, domain, mutation.

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Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists for prevention of chemotherapy-induced premature ovarian failure in premenopausal women with breast cancer


Amr Ghannam1, M.D.a, Rasha abdel-Ghany1 M.D.a, Abdel-hady zayed2 M.D.b


1 Department of Clinical Oncology, Tanta University Hospital, Tanta, Egyptand

2Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Mansura University, Mansoura, Egypt;


Abstract: Objective: To test the efficacy of GnRHa administered before and during combination chemotherapy in ovarian function preservation for breast cancer women. Patient(s): In this  prospective, randomized, study, sixty three patients younger than or equal to 45y old with non metastatic unilateral adenocarcinoma of the breast who had undergone modified radical mastectomy or breast-conserving surgery  were included in the study. Patients were assigned randomly to receive combined GnRHa and chemotherapy (anthracycline/ cyclophosphamide/ fluorouracil) or chemotherapy alone. The first GnRHa injection was administered at least 2 weeks before the first chemotherapy cycle, continuing at 3.6 mg subcutaneously every 4 weeks until the end of the last cycle. The primary objective was the reappearance of normal ovarian function, defined as two consecutive menstrual periods within 21 to 35 days at 6 months after end of chemotherapy. Result(s): In this study group, 81.2% resumed menses and 71.8% resumed spontaneous ovulation within 3–8 months of termination of the GnRHa/chemotherapy co-treatment; 18.8% experienced hyper-gonadotrophic amenorrhoea and ovarian failure 12 months after treatment. In the control group (chemotherapy without GnRHa), 54.8% resumed menses and 45.1% resumed normal ovarian activity. The mean FSH concentrations, 6 months after completion of the GnRHa/chemotherapy co-treatment group, were significantly less than the control group. During the GnRHa/chemotherapy co-treatment, the concentrations of FSH, LH, and P (progesterone) decreased to almost pre-pubertal levels. However, within 1–3 months after the last GnRHa injection, an increase in LH and FSH concentrations was detected, followed several weeks later in by an increase in progesterone  concentrations to within normal levels. The median Time to restoration of menstruation was 178 days with goserelin compared to 220 day without goserelin with statistical significant difference (p>0.00). Conclusion(s): GnRHa administration before and during combination chemotherapy for breast cancer may preserve post-treatment ovarian function in women <45 years. However, Long-term studies are required.

[Amr Ghannam, Rasha abdel-Ghany, Abdel-hady zayed. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists for prevention of chemotherapy-induced premature ovarian failure in premenopausal women with breast cancer. Cancer Biology 2014;4(1):18-25]. (ISSN: 2150-1041): (ISSN: 2150-105X (online). 3. doi:10.7537/marscbj040114.03


Keywords: Gonadotropin; hormone; agonist; prevention; chemotherapy; induce; premature; ovarian; failure; premenopausal; women; breast; cancer

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(A new theory on “Mukkil”)


M.Arulmani, B.E.


V.R.Hema Latha, M.A., M.Sc., M.Phil.




                In the Early Universe “MUKKIL” shall be considered as the 1st generation natural Electromagnetic spectrum. “MUKKIL” shall mean “cloud of absolutely white radiations”. The cloud of “white spectrum” considered contains billions of “Rays” and each ray considered represents every initially “CREATED” matter exists in the universe. The white spectrum shall also be called as “J-spectrum”. In J-spectrum every ray considers containing fundamental particles called “J-particles”.   In the so called “Expanding Universe” the three families of spectrum shall be considered “EVOLVED” in three “Nuclear age” of geological periods. The three genetically varied families of natural spectrum shall be called as “MUKKULAM”. The so called “Electro-magnetic spectrum” focused in Quantum physics shall be considered as “3rd generation coloured spectrum” composed of Billions of colours under three distinguished band of UV, RF, IR having distinguished wavelength, Frequency and energy level can be classified under major three nuclear family α, β, γ.   It is speculated that this scientific research shall provide balanced solutions to the conflicts in ‘particle-wave’ property of matters focused in uncertainty principle, Einstein’s relativity theory, Newton’s gravitational theory, Tesla’s Aether Principle and Maxwell’s electromagnetic wave theory.

 [M.Arulmani, B.E., V.R. Hema Latha, M.A., M.Sc., M. Phil. THE NUCLEAR “MUKKULAM”?..(A new theory on “Mukkil”). Cancer Biology 2014;4(1):26-45]. (ISSN: 2150-1041): (ISSN: 2150-105X (online). 4. doi:10.7537/marscbj040114.04


Key Words:

1)       Philosophy of Acronym “MGR” (Mzee)

2)      Philosophy of word “MUTHU” (White Matter)

3)      Philosophy of word “MUCHU” (Breath)

4)      Philosophy of word “MULAI” (Plasma)

5)      Philosophy of word “MULAM” (Soul)

6)      Philosophy of word “MUDI” (Hair)

7)      Philosophy of word “MUNU, MUNDRU” (Three)

8)      Philosophy of word “MUTHAM” (Nutrine)

9)      Philosophy of word “MUTHAMIL” (Logic)

10)   Philosophy of word ”MUKAM” (Band)

11)    Philosophy of word “MUTHIRAM” (Neuro Fluid)

12)   Philosophy of word “MUCHU” (Breath)

13)   Philosophy of word “MULAI, MUKULAM” (Brain and Spine)

14)   Philosophy of word “MUKKU” (Nose)

15)   Philosophy of word “MUVAR” (Three)

16)   Philosophy of word “MUNIVAR” (Alien)

17)   Philosophy of word “MUKKU” (Corner)

18)   Philosophy of word “MURUKKU” (Twist)

19)   Philosophy of word “MUTHIR” (Creation)

20)  Philosophy of word “MURAM” (Spectrum)

21)   Philosophy of word “MUTHAL” (Origin)

22)   Philosophy of word “MUDIVU” (End)

23)   Philosophy of word “MURIVU” (Decay)

24)   Philosophy of word “MU” (Greek Word)

25)   Philosophy of word “MUNUMUNUTHAL” (Pulse Music)

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(A new theory on Neutrino Milk)


M.Arulmani, B.E.


V.R.Hema Latha, M.A., M.Sc., M.Phil.




This scientific research based article focus that “NEUTRINO MILK” shall be considered as the Natural Product of “J-RADIATION”.  The J-Radiation in the cosmic universe shall be considerer having capability to product large amount of Neutrino milk in the space.  The Neutrino milk shall be considered as have been produced in the so called expanding universe at specific “TIME” and “SPACE”. The point of time when neutrino milk was produce in the universe shall be called as “MILKY REVOLUTION”.  In Prehistoric Tamil the milk revolution shall be called as “CHEI CHUTRU” (chei + chutru).

                (i)           “CHEI” shall mean “INFANT

                (ii)          “CHUTRU” shall mean “REVOLOTION

The physical state of Neutrino milk shall be considered exist like “white plasma cloud” and hence the neutrino milk shall also be called in prehistoric tamil as “MUKKIL”. Mukkil shall mean “White plasma milk”.  The neutrino milk shall be considered as highly “Nutrient food” composed of “three-in-one” fundamental neutrino particles proton, electron, photon. These particles shall also be considered as white particles having high immunity. Further in the expanding universe the various types of milk shall be considered evolved called as “CROP MILK” in three nuclear Evolution. The crop milk produced in three nuclear evolution shall be classified under three nuclear family as stipulated below:

                i) “BLUE EVOLUTION” – “γ family milk”

                ii) “GREEN EVOLUTION” – “β family milk”

                iii) “RED EVOLUTION” – “α family milk”

It is speculated that the new theory focused on “Neutrino milk” shall provide solution to the current misconceptional theories about “Dark hole”, “White hole” formation and existence in Quantum physics.

 “The so called milk produced during white revolution (around 1960s) under “AMUL BRAND” and current strategy of milk production for uplifting the social status of farmers and rural economy under various brands shall be considered as 3rd generation α family milk”. -   Author


[M.Arulmani, B.E., V.R.Hema Latha, M.A., M.Sc., M.Phil. WHITE REVOLUTION 2014-15?..(A new theory on Neutrino Milk). Cancer Biology 2014;4(1):46-63]. (ISSN: 2150-1041): (ISSN: 2150-105X (online). 5. doi:10.7537/marscbj040114.05


Key Words:

1)       Philosophy of Cosmo universe

2)      Philosophy of J-CELL

3)      Philosophy of Galaxies

4)      Philosophy of Milkyway

5)      Philosophy of Dark hole

6)      Philosophy of White hole

7)      Philosophy of Plasma milk

8)      Philosophy of Blue, Green, Red milk

9)      Etymology of word “Milky way

10)   Philosophy of word revolution and evolution

11)    Philosophy of “White revolution Logo

12)   Philosophy of “Crop Milk evolution

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(A new theory on “Mars Therapy”)


M.Arulmani, B.E.


V.R.Hema Latha, M.A., M.Sc., M.Phil.




This Scientific research article focus that the Prehistoric Tamil based Indians lived in “MARS PLANET” shall be considered as having high “Immunity” and free from dreaded disease like Cancer,  Aids,  Measles, Smallpox, Ebola, Rubella, Jaundice, Blood Pressure,  etc.


The high Immune system shall be considered derived due to exposure to “J–RADIATION” and Balanced environmental situation.  The J-RADIATION shall also be called as, “THE-e” (or) “Virgin Light”. The J-RADIANTION shall be considered Composed of fundamental Particles Photon, Electron, Proton having “Zero mass”. The fundamental particles shall be called as “Mul-e” or “e-Mu”.   During the course of time in the expanding Universe the human Immunity system shall be considered gradually reduced and infected with “New diseases” due to increased pollution and growth of various radiations, atoms, molecules which led to unbalanced environment. The birth of New diseases led the human brain to search for new medicines from “Natural Herbal Plants” called “ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE” (MULIGAI MARUNTHU) which is considered as parent origin to modern medicine like orthodox, conventional, functional medicines. The Alternative Medicine shall also be called in Prehistoric Tamil as “ACHI VAITHIAM”. Achi shall mean “Mother of Mars” (or) “Mother of Medicine” having three balanced effects say diet (mind), exercise (body), meditation (soul). “The Philosophy of Patti Vaithiam, Naattu Marunthu, Mooligai Maruthuvam, Siddha, Homeopathy, Auruedic, Unani, Acupuncture, Allopathy, Naturopathy,  R.S. Pathy, might be derived from the philosophy of  “THE – E”  (OR) “achi vaithiAm”. Author.

[M.Arulmani, B.E., V.R.Hema Latha, M.A., M.Sc., M.Phil. THE ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE?...(A new theory on “Mars Therapy”). Cancer Biology 2014;4(1):64-81]. (ISSN: 2150-1041): (ISSN: 2150-105X (online). 6. doi:10.7537/marscbj040114.06


Key Words:

a)                 Philosophy of “ANGEL”

b)                 Philosophy of  sin diseasE

c)                  Philosophy of  “MUL – E”

d)                 Philosophy of  “THEIR”

e)                  Philosophy of “DR”

f)                   Philosophy of “TELEPATHY”

g)                 Philosophy of  “THRI KADUKAM”    

h)                 Philosophy of  “Ayes, Noyes, Poyes”

i)                   Philosophy of  “THREE – ETCHAI”

j)                 Philosophy of “holistic medicine”

k)                 Philosophy of “THERAPY”

l)                   Philosophy of  “MARS MEDICINE”.

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Prognostic Factors for Neurological Outcome after Resection of Intramedullary Spinal Cord Ependymoma


Hend Ahmed EL-Hadaad1, Samar Galal Younis2, Mohamed Abdel Bari Mattar3, Ashraf Shaker Zidan3, Mohammad Abu-Hegazy4, Hassan Salama4 and  Mohamed Saad4


1 Clinical Oncology an Nuclear Medicine department, Mansoura University.  2 Clinical Oncology, Tanta University. 3 Neurosurgery. 4 Neurology departments, Mansoura University, Egypt.


Abstract: Background: Radical resections of spinal ependymomas were made possible by many neurosurgeons with the advantages of electrophysiological spinal cord monitoring. Objective: to clarify the good neurological outcome prognostic factors and survival after surgical excision of spinal ependymomas. Patients and Method: The current study enrolled 25 patients with spinal ependymomas. Neurological function and MRI were evaluated preoperatively, at discharge, 6-month and 12-month thereafter. Factors associated with gross-total resection (GTR), progression-free survival (PFS), and long-term neurological improvements were assessed. Results: The mean age was 40 years. All pathological types of ependymomas are included. GTR was achieved in 22 cases (88%). Nine patients (36%) experienced acute neurological decline post-operatively where 7 (77.7%) of them were older and had bad preoperative baseline. In 5 patients (20%) showed tumor progression after 13 months follows up. Tumor histology, the presence of an intraoperatively identified tumor plane and adjuvant radiotherapy correlated with improved PFS. Twenty two patients (88%) maintained neurological improvement after 12 months. The presence of neurological symptoms improvement before dischargewas associated with overall good outcome (mean 13 months). Conclusion: GTR can be safely achieved in the majority of spinal ependymoma when an intraoperative plane is identified, independent of pathological subtype. The incidence of acute perioperative neurological decline increases with patient age but will improve to baseline in nearly most of patients within 1 month. Long-term improvement in motor, sensory, and bladder dysfunction occurs more frequently in patients with identified surgical plane; therefore a GTR should be attempted for all ependymomas.

[Hend Ahmed EL-Hadaad, Samar Galal Younis, Mohamed Abdel Bari Mattar, Ashraf Shaker Zidan, Mohammad Abu-Hegazy, Hassan Salama and  Mohamed Saad. Prognostic Factors for Neurological Outcome after Resection of Intramedullary Spinal Cord Ependymoma. Cancer Biology 2014;4(1):82-88]. (ISSN:2150-1041): (ISSN: 2150-105X (online). 7. doi:10.7537/marscbj040114.07


Key words: ependymoma-resection -predictors –neurological outcome

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The manuscripts in this issue were presented as online first for peer-review starting from February 11, 2014
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