Science Journal



Cancer Biology

(Cancer Biology) (Quarterly)

ISSN: 2150-1041 (print); ISSN: 2150-105X (online) 

Volume 4 / Issue 2, Cumulated No. 14, June 25, 2014
Cover, Introduction, Contents


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Titles / Authors /Abstracts

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Histopathologic Study of Antiestrogenic Anticancer Nolvadex Induced Liver Damage in Rats and Vitamins Ameliorative Effect


Fatma A. Morsy, Amina Gamal el-Din, Nermeen M. Shaffie and Manal A. Badawi


Department of Pathology, National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo, 12622, Egypt


ABSTRACT: This study was designed to evaluate the effects of antiestrogenic anticancer Nolvadex (used for breast cancer treatment) on rat liver and the possible protective effects of vitamin C and/ or E. Material and methods: A total of 140 adult female albino rats were used; divided into seven groups; each containing 20 rats: First group: as control. Second group: orally daily dosed with Nolvadex 20 mg/kg b. w. for three weeks. Third group: orally given vitamin C (0.02 g/100 g b wt), 15 min before daily Nolvadex administration. Fourth group: given vitamin E (120 mg/Kg b.w), 15 min prior to daily Nolvadex administration. The fifth group was given combination of the two vitamins C & E (0.02 g/100 g b.w.) and (120 mg/kg b.w.) respectively, 15 min before daily Nolvadex administration. Each of the remaining two groups was daily given vitamin C (0.02 g/100 g b.w.) and/or E (120 mg/kg b.w.) for two weeks. Paraffin sections were used for histopathological , quantitative image analysis DNA ploidy and histochemical studies .Electron microscopy was performed. Results: Histopathological degenerative effects in the form of vacuolar degeneration, fatty changes and hydropic degeneration were noticed in Nolvadex treated rat liver. Karyolysis and karyorrhexis were also seen.Dysplasia and chromatin clumping were observed in scattered hepatocytes together with a decrease in DNA content (hypoploidy) and marked diminution of protein and mucopolysaccharides content.Histopathological, histochemical and ultra structural changes were diminished in rats treated with vitamins C and/ or E prior to Nolvadex. Conclusion: The treatment of rats with vitamins C and/or E prior to Nolvadex resulted in amelioration of the histopathological ,histochemical and ultrastructural changes in liver.

[Fatma A. Morsy, Amina Gamal el-Din, Nermeen M. Shaffie and Manal A. Badawi. Histopathologic Study of Antiestrogenic Anticancer Nolvadex Induced Liver Damage in Rats and Vitamins Ameliorative Effect. Cancer Biology 2014;4(2):1-15]. (ISSN: 2150-1041): (ISSN: 2150-105X (online). 1. doi:10.7537/marscbj040214.01


Key words: Histopathology – antiestrogenic – anticancer- Nolvadex – liver – rat – Vitamins

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Normalized Therapy Dose (EQD2) from management of locally advanced cervical cancer: comparison with ABS recommendation.


Akinlade B.I1, Elumelu-Kupoluyi T.N1, Ntekim I.A1,  Adenipekun A.A1,   Oyekunle E.O1,  Campbell O.B1,  Folasire A.M1


1Department of Radiotherapy, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria.

2Department of Radiotherapy, University College Hospital, Ibadan Oyo State Nigeria.,


Abstract: Optimal radiotherapy dose fractionation regime (DFR) for definitive management of cervical cancer is not well known. However, several investigators have demonstrated that the biologically equivalent dose in 2-Gy fractions(EQD2) required to achieve local control probability of more than 90% for advanced disease is about 87Gy to the high risk tumour volume. Patients with locally advanced cervical cancer (LACC) have been managed at the University College Hospital, Ibadan Nigeria with combination of external beam radiation and high dose rate (HDR) intracavitary brachytherapy using different DFR. This study is aimed at calculating EQD2 received by 250 patients with LACC managed with different DFR between 2008 and 2010.   Patients’ data were extracted from case files and mathematical method was used to calculate EQD2. Results obtained were compared with EQD2 values (80–90Gy) recommended by the American Brachytherapy Society (ABS) for LACC.  Out of eleven different DFR employed at the centre, only five resulted in EQD2 values (81.00Gy, 87.60 Gy, 81.30 Gy, 88.80 Gy and 83.10 Gy) that are within ABS recommendation; five fell below (65.60 Gy, 70.30 Gy, 75.60 Gy, 78.40 Gy and 77.80 Gy) and one is higher  (99. 80 Gy). It means out of 250 patients managed during this period, only 45% received recommended dose required to cure macroscopic disease. This study shows that to improve therapeutic ratio, total EQD2 for DFR(of choice) must be calculated before treatment. With the on-going follow-up, further study is aimed at assessment of late complications, 5- year survival and rate of recurrence in these patients.

[Akinlade BI, Elumelu-Kupoluyi TN, Ntekim IA., Adenipekun AA, Oyekunle EO, Campbell OB, Folasire AM.    Normalized Therapy Dose (EQD2) from management of locally advanced cervical cancer: comparison with ABS recommendation.  Cancer Biology 2014;4(1):16-21]. (ISSN: 2150-1041): (ISSN: 2150-105X (online). 2. doi:10.7537/marscbj040214.02


Keywords: Normalized therapy Dose (EQD2), dose fractionation, HDR brachytherapy, cervical cancer

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Dosimetric Verification of Bhabhatron-II Telecobalt Unit at the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria.


Akinlade B. I1, Oyekunle E. O2,  Adenipekun A. A1,  Elumelu-Kupoluyi T.N1, Folasire A. M1


1Department of Radiotherapy, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria.

2Department of Radiotherapy, University College Hospital, Ibadan Oyo State Nigeria.,


Abstract: Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, India developed an indigenous Telecobalt unit, Bhabhatron-II, for cancer treatment in the year 2006. The electrical safety of the unit, conducted by the electronics regional test laboratory Thiruvananthapuram, found its compliance with the International Electro-technical Commission (IEC) standards. The radiological safety of Bhabhatron-II was evaluated shortly after its development and also found to comply with the IEC standards.  Apart from these tests, there are other tests to which radiation facility must undergo before its acceptance for clinical applications. These include mechanical checks of various parts of the machine and dosimetric measurements of parameters needed for clinical application of the unit on patients. The mechanical check is not discussed in this study. The aim of this study is to verify some dosimetric parameters namely, collimator transmission, wedge transmission, tray factors and Cobalt-60 tissue maximum ratios for square field sizes that are not included in published standard data. This study was carried out during the acceptance testing and commissioning of Bhabhatron-II telecobalt unit newly installed at the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. The values of most of the parameters considered in this study agree with values of similar parameters published in literature for Cobalt-60 unit. However, the transmission factors of four out of seven wedge filters have values that are within the values supplied by the Manufacturer. The dosimetric property of Bhabhatron-II telecobalt unit obtained in this study can complement the existing standard data for Cobalt-60 gamma radiation.

[Akinlade BI, Oyekunle EO, Adenipekun AA, Elumelu-Kupoluyi TN, Folasire AM. Dosimetric Verification of Bhabhatron-II Telecobalt Unit at the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. Cancer Biology 2014;4(2):22-29]. (ISSN: 2150-1041): (ISSN: 2150-105X (online). 3. doi:10.7537/marscbj040214.03


Keywords: Radiation dosimetry, Bhabhatron-II telecobalt unit, Tissue Maximum Ratio, dosimetric parameters, Transmission factor.

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(A New theory on “ Islands”)





M.Arulmani, B.E.


V.R.Hema Latha, M.A., M.Sc., M.Phil.



Abstract: This Scientific research article focus that in geological term “PLASMA LAND MASS”, also called as “e-LAND” shall be considered as the land origin where first Human origin started living on the “Earth Planet”. In proto Indo Europe language the plasma land of Earth shall be called as “Kachcha theevu”. In Dravidian language the land of Karcha theevu shall also be called as “KARI NADU” called in short as “K-NADU”. Kari Nadu shall mean land of medically enriched “FISH-CURRY”. In the history of geological evolution there are thousands of “Islands” such as Madagascar, Sri Lanka, British isle, Greenland exist all over the world. This article emphasize that “Kachcha theevu” shall be considered as the “SOUL” of all Islands and Continental Nations. Based on human historical culture the logo of Katcha Theevu shall be indicated as below. Kachcha shall mean “GOD”. This article further emphasize that clear understanding about the philosophy of Kachcha theevu shall pave path for formation of new theories about geological origin of various land origin as well as Human origin on the Earth planet. Kachcha Theevu shall be considered as the fundamental “ENERGY SOURCE” of Earth resource like crude oil, coal, coke, natural gas, including fish. The closure of “OCEANIC DUCT” of Kachcha Theevu shall mean exhaust of all oil fields of Earthly nations. - Author

[M. Arulmani, B.E., V.R. Hema Latha, M.A., M.Sc., M.Phil. THE KACHCHA THEEVU? (A New theory on “ Islands”). Cancer Biology 2014;4(2):30-37]. (ISSN: 2150-1041): (ISSN: 2150-105X (online). 4. doi:10.7537/marscbj040214.04


Key Words:

a)      Philosophy of “Plasma clay soil

b)      Philosophy of “Theevu

c)       Philosophy of “Ezhem

d)      Philosophy of “e-Son

e)      Philosophy of “Blue eye Iris

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Breast Cancer Gene 1 (Brca 1) Mutation In Female Patients With Or Without Family History In Qalubia Governorate


Fouad El-said El-Debaky*, Naglaa Ibrahim Azab*, Naglaa Fathy Alhusseini*, Sanya khairy Eliwa* and Hamed Rashsad Musalam•


*Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University - Egypt.

•General Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University – Egypt.

Corresponding author: Naglaa Ibrahim Azab

Mailing address: Medical Biochemistry Departement. Faculty of Medicine, Benha University – Egypt.



ABSTRACT: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women and its impact on morbidity and mortality is significant and well documented. BRCA genes mutation account for most of the cases of familial breast cancer. Female BRCA1 mutation carriers have an 80% to 85% risk of developing breast cancer over their life-time. This study aims to detect 5382insC,185delAG and C61G mutations in BRCA1 gene in healthy females and breast cancer female patients in Qalubia Governorate and correlate them with the presence or absence of family history of breast &/ or ovarian cancer to allow identification of individuals at high risk. Materials and methods: 50 females divided into 20 healthy females and 30 breast cancer patients with or without family history of breast &/or ovarian cancers were included in the study.185delAG and 5382insC mutation were detected by multiplex mutagenically separated PCR (MS - PCR) and C61G mutation was detected using the RFLP method. Results: It was found that the incidence of BRCA1 gene mutation in the breast cancer group was higher than its incidence in the control group Also the incidence of BRCA1 gene mutation in the groups with family history was higher than in the groups without family history. In addition, multiple exons mutation frequency was higher than one exon mutation in the breast cancer group with family history.Moreover, 5382insC mutation was found to be the most frequent BRCA 1 gene mutation among the females of Qalubia governorate followed by C61G mutation and 185 delAG mutation. Conclusion: In conclusion, BRCA1 gene mutation and multiple BRCA1 exons mutations play an important role in the pathogenesis of familial breast cancer in Qalubia Governorate, Egypt.

[Fouad El-said El-Debaky, Naglaa Ibrahim Azab, Naglaa Fathy Alhusseini, Sanya khairy Eliwa and Hamed Rashsad Musalam. Breast Cancer Gene 1 (Brca 1) Mutation In Female Patients With Or Without Family History In Qalubia Governorate. Cancer Biology 2014;4(2):38-49]. (ISSN: 2150-1041): (ISSN: 2150-105X (online). 5. doi:10.7537/marscbj040214.05


Key words: familial breast cancer, BRCA1 gene, 5382insC mutation, 185delAG mutation, C61G mutation.

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Hypnosis  Interventions (Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy) with  Cancer Pain


Hamed Haddad Kashani2, Mohammad Sharrif Moghaddasi3


3Agronomy and plant breeding department,Saveh Branch, Islamic Azad University, Iran

2Anatomical Sciences Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran

*Corresponding Author: Mohammad Sharrif Moghaddasi, Agronomy and plant breeding department, Saveh Branch, Islamic Azad University, Iran


Abstract: Hypnotherapy has been used for many years in clinical settings. Hypnotherapy’s role in cancer management however, is relatively new and indications are that its utilization has not been fully maximized yet. Effective cancer treatment often depends on the patient’s ability to not only defeat the cancer through treatments but also to maintain their health and mental spirit throughout the painful side effects of cancer treatments such as chemotherapy and radiation.Physical pain is perhaps one of the most feared consequences for patients with cancer. Available esti-mates suggest that chronic pain affects 60% of adult patients with newly diagnosed or intermediate-stage cancer and up to 95% of patients with advanced disease. Indeed, the magnitude of the problem is so great that some reports indicate that 25% of individuals may actually die in significant pain.

[Hamed Haddad Kashani, Mohammad Sharrif Moghaddasi. Hypnosis  Interventions (Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy) with  Cancer Pain. Cancer Biology 2014;4(2):50-52]. (ISSN: 2150-1041): (ISSN: 2150-105X (online). 6. doi:10.7537/marscbj040214.06


Keywords: Hypnosis,  Interventions, Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy, Cancer, Pain

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Incidence and screening of breast cancer in Iranian women


Hashemian M1, Ghardashi F*, Asadi Z2, Khosroabadi AA 3, Pejhan A4 Javan R 5, Nakhaei MR6


1 -Faculty Member, Department of Health education, Sabzevar University of Medical Science, Sabzevar, Iran.

2 - PhD student health education and promotion, Tehran University of medical science, Tehran, Iran

3 -Faculty Member, Department of Public Health, Sabzevar University of Medical Science, Sabzevar, Iran

4-cellular and molecular research center, sabzevar, University of Medical Science, Sabzevar, Iran

5 --General practitioner. Health center of sabzevar, University of Medical Science, Sabzevar, Iran

6 - Psychiatrist and Assistant professor of Sabzevar University of medical sciences

*Correspondence Fatemeh Ghardashi, Faculty Member, Department of Paramedical, Sabzevar University of Medical Science, Sabzevar, Iran Postal code 5714445994 Mobile Phone: 9105100727, Fax: 05714445648. Email:


Abstract: Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer among women worldwide and in Iran encompasses 32% of cancer diagnoses in women . The aim of this study was to develop the screening methods and determine annual incidence of the disease in one of the north-eastern region of Iran. In this cross-sectional study, 160 women, aged over 20, suffering from breast cancer were identified through a census survey conducted by health providers from 1380 to 1389 in Sabzevar, Iran. The data was collected through questionnaire which its validity was assessed by content and face validity and its reliability were supported through a test-retest method and it was completed by interview method. Descriptive statistics was used to develop statistical indices, frequency tables and charts. The results showed that the mortality rate of the disease, in women aged 40-49, had the highest frequency of 30.8%. Among 102 live patients, 82.4% of which was not aware about their disease and unfortunately the cancer was at the invasive stage.84.3% of them hadn’t also undergone a mammography or ultrasound breast examination. It is important to inform women about the importance of mammography or ultrasound breast examination and it is vital to expand the associated facilities and educational programs to prevent and reduce the mortality rate of the disease. 

[Hashemian M, Ghardashi F, Asadi Z, Khosroabadi AA, Pejhan A, Javan R, Nakhaei MR. Incidence and screening of breast cancer in Iranian women. Cancer Biology 2014;4(2):53-59]. (ISSN: 2150-1041): (ISSN: 2150-105X (online). 7. doi:10.7537/marscbj040214.07


Key words: Breast cancer, Screening, incidence.

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High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) in Localized Prostate Cancer Treatment: Review Study


Khalid S. Alzimami 1, Mustafa Z. Mahmoud 2,3, Mohammed A. Alkhorayef 1, Abdelmoneim Sulieman 2


1. Radiological Sciences Department, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh- Saudi Arabia

2. Radiology and Medical Imaging Department, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Salman bin Abdulaziz University, Al-Kharj- Saudi Arabia

3. Basic Sciences Department, College of Medical Radiological Sciences, Sudan University of Science and Technology, Khartoum- Sudan


Abstract: High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is a highly precise medical procedure that applies high intensity focused ultrasound energy to locally heat and destroys diseased or damaged tissue through ablation. This study intended to review HIFU to explain from a fundamental how HIFU works, to evaluate the evidence on the role of HIFU for the treatment of prostate cancer (PC) as well as to review the technologies used to perform HIFU and the published clinical literature regarding the procedure as a primary treatment for PC. Studies addressing HIFU in localized PC were identified from a search of the internet scientific databases. The literature outcomes analysis was limited to journal articles written in English and published between 2000 and 2013. HIFU possesses characteristics that make it an attractive curative therapy option. HIFU is a non-invasive approach that uses precisely delivered ultrasound energy to achieve tumor cell necrosis without radiation or surgical excision. In current urological oncology, HIFU is used clinically in the treatment of PC. Clinical research on HIFU therapy for localized PC began in the 1990s, and the majority of PC patients treated predominantly with the Ablatherm device. HIFU is a highly effective standard treatment with a large indication range over all tumor stages of PC. In localized PC treatment, HIFU is associated with high efficacy, low operative morbidity and no systemic side effects.

[Alzimami KS, Mahmoud MZ, Alkhorayef MA, Sulieman A. High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) in Localized Prostate Cancer Treatment: Review Study. Cancer Biology 2014;4(2):60-66]. (ISSN: 2150-1041): (ISSN: 2150-105X (online). 8. doi:10.7537/marscbj040214.08


Keywords: High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU); Magnetic resonance guided focused ultrasound surgery (MRgFUS); Prostate cancer (PC).

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Role of multislice CT in evaluation of pancreatic cancer


Zeinab ali(1) and Wael Alhoseny(2)


1 Radiology department, Menofya University; 2 Mehalla hepatology teaching hospitals


Abstract: Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the role of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) in evaluation and prediction of pancreatic tumors resectability. Patients and methods: The study included 40 patients who had pancreatic masses, 18 males and 22 females, and their age range was 18–86 years with a mean age of 57 years. All the patients underwent non-contrast and contrast enhanced Multi-slice CT using a 16-slice machine. The gold standard for diagnosis was histopathology and operative data. Results: Adenocarcinoma as reported by pathological studies was found in 18 patients, cyst adenocarcinoma in 2 patients, infiltrative periampullary adenocarcinoma in 4 patients, intraductal papillary mucinous tumor in 2 patients, mucinous cyst adenocarcinoma in one patient, solid pseudopaplillary neoplasm in 2 patients and mucinous cystadenoma in 4 patients. According to MDCT criteria 21 patients were considered suitable for tumor resection and 16 patients were considered inoperable with unresectable tumor, 5 out of the 21 operable patients was unresectable during operation due to 1 missed liver metastasis, 1 missed omental deposit, 1 missed of superior mesenteric vein invasion, 1 missed lymph node metastasis and 1 missed duodenal invasion.Conclusion: Contrast-enhanced multiphase pancreatic imaging by multislice computerized tomography (MSCT) with its postprocessing techniques represents the image of choice for diagnosis and predicting pancreatic masses and resectability.

[Zeinab ali and Wael Alhoseny. Role of multislice CT in evaluation of pancreatic cancer. Cancer Biology 2014;4(2):67-78]. (ISSN: 2150-1041): (ISSN: 2150-105X (online). 9. doi:10.7537/marscbj040214.09


Key Words: pancreatic cancer, multislice CT,pancreatic adenocarcinoma

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Influence of combined genotypes of RETN G62A with C-180G and G299A polymorphisms on colon cancer risk


Rowyda N. Al-Harithy* and Ayat B. Al-Ghafari


Department of Biochemistry, King Abdul-Aziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia


Abstract: Understanding the biology and genetic alterations of adipocytokines, cell-signaling proteins secreted by adipose tissue, provides new insights into the pathogenesis and treatment of several diseases including cancer. In the present study, we investigated the role of RETN gene G62A variant in the pathophysiology of colon cancer. A group of 120 Saudi volunteers (60-colon cancer patients and 60 disease-free controls) within the same age range was studied. PCR-RELP technique was used to determine the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). The results were compared with the control group. Analysis of SNP+62 genotypes results showed 100% normal (GG) in both the patients and the controls. Heterozygous (GA) and homozygous (AA) genotypes were not detected in all the patients and the controls. The interesting result in this study is the combined effect of G62A SNP with RETN C-180G and G299A SNPs. The results showed a decrease risk of colon cancer reflecting the protective role of SNP G62A in the development of colon cancer. These results suggest that these variants in RETN gene and their interactions are strongly associated with the development of colon cancer.

[Rowyda N. Al-Harithy and Ayat B. Al-Ghafari. Influence of combined genotypes of RETN G62A with C-180G and G299A polymorphisms on colon cancer risk. Cancer Biology 2014;4(2):79-86]. (ISSN: 2150-1041): (ISSN: 2150-105X (online). 10. doi:10.7537/marscbj040214.10


Keywords: Resistin gene, SNPs, colon cancer, Saudi population

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The manuscripts in this issue were presented as online first for peer-review starting from June 5, 2014
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