Science Journal

 

 Cancer Biology

 

ISSN: 2150-1041 (print); ISSN: 2150-105X (online)

 
Volume 4 / Issue 3, Cumulated No. 15, September 25, 2014, doi:10.7537/j.issn.2150-1041
Cover, Introduction, Contents

 

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CONTENTS  

No.

Titles / Authors /Abstracts

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1

A Novel CAD System for Breast Cancer Detection

 

Osama R.Shahin 1, Hamdy M. Kelash2, Gmal Mahrous2,  Osama S. Farag Allah2

 

1. Physic and Mathematic Department, Faculty of Engineering, Helwan University, Egypt

2. Department of Computer science and Engineering, Faculty of Electronic Engineering, Menoufia University, Menouf, 32952, Egypt

E-mail: Osama.Shahin@ymail.com

 

Abstract: As breast cancer is considered the most fatal one of all cancer types according to recent findings, many researchers all over the world are interested to develop CAD (computer aided diagnoses) systems as a second opinion for the radiologists. Therefore this paper aims to develop a preprocessing scheme for the detection and classification of breast cancer in mammogram images. The scheme proposed consists of two main phases. Firstly, detection phase. In this phase we used a template-matching procedure. These templates are defined according to the shape, and brightness of the tumor masses. Several steps including thersholding, labeling and masking, filtering were suggested to enhance the tumor's intensity compared to the surrounding background blood vessels which appear very similar to tumor in mammogram images. Convert the image into binary one was needed to calculate the properties for all objects in the image. According to the diameter property of the label image, the 2D Gaussian template will design. So we had a dynamic diameter template according to the specific mammogram image. A new template matching algorithm using cross-correlation method is implemented in this work. Cross-correlation algorithm operates well on two-dimensional images and gives the best result for the matching process. Secondly, feature extraction phase. In this phase a new algorithm for classifying mammograms by using an evolutionary approach known as signatures- distances from the centroid to all points on the boundary of the region of interest (ROI) as a function of a polar angle θ. The signature of a closed boundary is a periodic function, repeating itself on an angular scale of 2π. Then encode and describe this closed boundary to arbitrary function through 1-D (radial) Fourier expansion coefficients. The method was tested over several images from the image a database taken from MIAS (Mammogram Image Analysis Society, UK), that provides a standardized classification for mammographic studies. This system demonstrates good correlation with the likelihood of breast malignancy. The algorithm works faster so that any radiologist can take a clear decision about the appearance of calcifications by visual inspection. The implementation of the algorithm was carried out using MATLAB codes programming and thus is capable of executing effectively on a simple personal computer with digital mammogram as accumulated data for assessment.

[Osama R.Shahin, Hamdy M. Kelash, Gmal Mahrous, Osama S. Farag Allah. A Novel CAD System for Breast Cancer Detection. Cancer Biology 2014;4(3):1-10]. (ISSN: 2150-1041). http://www.cancerbio.net. 1. doi:10.7537/marscbj040314.01

 

Keywords: Mammogram, Gaussian distribution, Template matching, Fourier series.

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2

Testing the Involvement of Viral Infections in Breast Cancer Diseases

 

Ali S. Gad Al Karim 1*, Abd El Moneam M. Sharaf.1, Mustafa Abd El-Fadeel 2, Mohamed S. Al Shinawi 3, Hesham M. El-Mahdy 1

 

1. Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt

2. Naval American Medical Research Unit-3 (NAMRU-3), Cairo, Egypt

3. General Surgery Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

*aliashandawely@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The most common cancer worldwide among women is breast cancer. The initiation, promotion, and progression of this cancer result from both internal and external factors. One of the reasons of the breast cancer causes is hormonal responsible viruses. In this study, we screened for anti-EBV,anti-HPV and anti-MMTV IgG antibodies in peripheral blood of 40 invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and 10 non- IBC patients In addition, we screened for EBV,HPV-DNA and MMTV RNA in postsurgical cancer and non-cancer breast tissues of IBC and non-IBC patients, were Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) 67.5%, Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) 50%, and  Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus (MMTV) 57.5%. Our results reveal that IBC patients are characterized by a statistically significant increase in EBV, HPV and MMTV IgG antibody titers compared to non-IBC patients. EBV, HPV –DNA and MMTV RNA was significantly detected in cancer tissues than in the adjacent non-carcinoma tissues of IBC and IDC, and IBC cancer tissues were significantly more infected with EBV, HPV –DNA and MMTV RNA compared to IDC. Etiology and causality of EBV, HPV, MMTV infection with IBC now needs to be rigorously examined.

[Gad Al Karim AS, Sharaf AM, Abd El-Fadeel M, Al Shinawi MS, El-Mahdy HM. Testing the Involvement of Viral Infections in Breast Cancer Diseases. Cancer Biology 2014;4(3):11-21]. (ISSN: 2150-1041). http://www.cancerbio.net. 2. doi:10.7537/marscbj040314.02

 

Keywords: BC; EBV; HPV; MMTV; ER; PR

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3

Molecular characterization of viruses involvement in breast cancer patients

 

Ali S. Gad Al Karim 1*, Abd El Moneam M. Sharaf.1, Mustafa Abd El-Fadeel 2, Mohamed S. Al Shinawi 3, Hesham M. El-Mahdy 1

 

1. Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt

2. Naval American Medical Research Unit-3 (NAMRU-3), Cairo, Egypt

3. General Surgery Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

*aliashandawely@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Epstein–Barr Virus (EBV), Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) and Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus (MMTV) are hormonal responsible viruses that re-emerges in cancer patients enhancing oncogenic potential. In the present study we investigated the presence of EBV, HPV and MMTV in inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) a rapidly progressing form of breast cancer characterized by specific molecular signature. We screened for anti-EBV IgG antibodies, anti-HPV IgG antibodies and anti-MMTV IgG antibodies in peripheral blood of 40 IBC invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and Lobular carcinoma. In addition, we screened for EBV, HPV-DNA and MMTV-mRNA. We also use sequence analysis to detect if we have a different virus strain or not. Our results reveal that IBC are characterized by astatically significant increase in EBV, HPV and MMTV IgG antibody titers and detection compared to healthy control patients.    EBV, HPV- DNA and MMTV-mRNA was significantly detected in BC tissues than in than healthy control patients. EBV, HPV and MMTV sequence analysis not detect a different strains but by using phylogentic  relationship it was homology with other strains in gen bank. The present study results demonstrated  a correlation between EBV, HPV and MMTV and BC. Etiology , causality and transmission of EBV, HPV and MMTV infection with BC need more rigorously examined.

[Gad Al Karim AS, Sharaf AM, Abd El-Fadeel M, Al Shinawi MS, El-Mahdy HM. Molecular characterization of viruses involvement in breast cancer patients. Cancer Biology 2014;4(3):22-34]. (ISSN: 2150-1041). http://www.cancerbio.net. 3. doi:10.7537/marscbj040314.03

 

Keywords: Epstein–Barr Virus (EBV); Human Papilloma Virus (HPV); Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus (MMTV); PCR; ELISA

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4

 THE PREGNANT MAN? (A New theory on “Male Pregnancy”)

  

M.Arulmani, B.E.

(Engineer)

m.arulmani58@gmail.com

V.R.Hema Latha, M.A., M.Sc., M.Phil.

(Biologist)

vrhemalatha58@gmail.com

  

Abstract:  This scientific research article focus that the “Human Ancestor” lived in “Mars Planet’ in the early universe shall be considered having distinguished genetic characteristics compared to “Modern Human” living in earth Planet especially in reproduction of population. This research further focus that MALE PARENT shall be considered as “become pregnant” and responsible for child birth. During the course of “Space” and “Time” of expanding universe the mars populations consider have descended to Earth planet due to varied climatic condition and FEMALE PARENT become pregnant and responsible for child birth at later stage of “Nuclear age” It is hypothesized that male parent might have “laid egg” for the reproduction.  Projected belly of male (Beer belly) is due to excess deposit of fat cell?... No… No… No…  It is due to gene transfer of male parent Pregnancy. “The uterus need not be considered as an essential organ for reproduction for human child birth” in the early universe. - Author

[M.Arulmani, B.E., V.R.Hema Latha, M.A. THE PREGNANT MAN? (A New theory on “Male Pregnancy”). Cancer Biology 2014;4(3):35-43]. (ISSN: 2150-1041). http://www.cancerbio.net. 4. doi:10.7537/marscbj040314.04

 

Key Words:

a)          Philosophy of “Male Pregnancy”?...

b)          Philosophy of “Angel” and “Woman”?...

c)          Philosophy of “Infant” and “child”?...

d)          Philosophy of “trisomy” and “transgender”?...

e)          Philosophy of “sea-horse” and “amoeba”?...

f)            Philosophy of “Jayam+”?...

g)          Philosophy of “J-Cloning”?...

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5

Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and cancer literatures

 

Ma Hongbao 1, Margaret Young 2

 

1 Brookdale Hospital, Brooklyn, NY 11212, USA; 2 Cambridge, MA 02138, USA

ma8080@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are genetically reprogrammed adult cells that exhibit a pluripotent stem cell-like state similar to embryonic stem cells. There are several key types of pluripotent stem cells: (1) Embryonic stem cells are isolated from the inner cell mass of the blastocyst. (2) Embryonic germ cells are taken from aborted foetuses and these pluripotent cells are derived from very early cells. (3) Embryonic carcinoma or cancer cells are isolated from a type of tumour that sometimes occurs in a foetus. Embryonic germ cells are taken from aborted foetuses and these pluripotent cells are derived from very early cells. These early cells can become sperm and eggs. Embryonic stem cells are isolated from the inner cell mass of the blastocyst. Embryonic carcinoma or cancer cells are isolated from a type of tumour that sometimes occurs in a foetus. Embryonic carcinoma or cancer cells are isolated from a type of tumour that sometimes occurs in a foetus. Cancer stem cells are a subpopulation of cancer cells that can self-renew, propagate, and differentiate into the many types of cells in a tumor. Cancer stem cells are the source of all cells that make up the cancer. Chemotherapy may only destroy the cells that form the bulk of the tumor and leave the cancer stem cells intact and ready to give rise to a recurring tumor.

[Ma H, Young M. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and cancer literatures. Cancer Biology 2014;4(3):44-49]. (ISSN: 2150-1041). http://www.cancerbio.net. 5. doi:10.7537/marscbj040314.05

 

Key words: DNA; eternal; life; stem cell; universe

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6

c-Myc (Myc) and cancer literatures

 

Ma Hongbao 1, Margaret Young  2

 

1 Brookdale Hospital, Brooklyn, NY 11212, USA; 2 Cambridge, MA 02138, USA

ma8080@gmail.com

 

Abstract: c-Myc (Myc) is a regulator gene coding for a transcription factor. The c-Myc protein is a multifunctional, nuclear phosphoprotein that plays a role in cell cycle progression, apoptosis and cellular transformation. The mutated c-Myc is found in many cancers, which makes it be persistently expressed. This causes to the unregulated expression of many genes, some of which are involved in cell proliferation and results in the formation of cancer. Malfunctions in c-Myc have been found in carcinoma of the cervix, colon, breast, lung and stomach, etc. c-Myc is considered as a promising target for anti-cancer drugs.

[Ma H, Young M. c-Myc (Myc) and cancer literatures. Cancer Biology 2014;4(3):50-55]. (ISSN: 2150-1041). http://www.cancerbio.net. 6. doi:10.7537/marscbj040314.06

 

Key words: DNA; eternal; life; stem cell; universe

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7

The octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (OCT4) and cancer literatures

 

Ma Hongbao 1, Margaret Young 2

 

1 Brookdale Hospital, Brooklyn, NY 11212, USA; 2 Cambridge, MA 02138, USA

ma8080@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (OCT4) is one of the key regulatory genes that maintains the pluripotency and self-renewal properties of stem cells, and it can function as oncogene in cancers. There is negative correlation between levels of BAK1 and OCT4, and positive between OCT4 and miR-125b in primary cervical cancers. There are many methods to deliver the transcription factors into target cells to generate iPSCs. The first method is retrovirus or lentivirus transduction. The problem of this technique is the genome integration of virus DNA which could possibly alter differentiation potential or other malignant transformation. The second method is adenoviral vectors to induce iPSC. The advantage of adenovirus vector based expression is that the transgenes will not integrate into the house genome, thus reduces the risk of tumorogenesis. The third one is a plasmid based transfection that can avoid the genome integration also. Recently, the Cre-recombinase excisable systems are used in iPSC induction and subsequent transgene removal making the iPSC technology closer to clinic applications.

[Ma H, Young M. The octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (OCT4) and cancer literatures. Cancer Biology 2014;4(3):56-65]. (ISSN: 2150-1041). http://www.cancerbio.net. 7. doi:10.7537/marscbj040314.07

 

Key words: DNA; eternal; life; stem cell; universe

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8

SOX2 and cancer literatures

 

Ma Hongbao 1, Margaret Young 2

 

1 Brookdale Hospital, Brooklyn, NY 11212, USA; 2 Cambridge, MA 02138, USA

ma8080@gmail.com

 

Abstract: SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 2 (SOX2), is a transcription factor that is essential for maintaining self-renewal, or pluripotency, of undifferentiated embryonic stem cells. Sox2 is a member of the Sox family of transcription factors. This protein family has conserved DNA binding domains as High-mobility group (HMG) box domains containing approximately 80 amino acids. In squamous cell carcinoma, gene amplifications frequently target the 3q26.3 region. The gene for Sox2 lies within this region, which effectively characterizes Sox2 as an oncogene. Sox2 is a key upregulated factor in some cell carcinoma, directing many genes involved in tumor progression. Sox2 overexpression cooperates with loss of Lkb1 expression to promote cancer in animals. Its overexpression activates cellular migration and anchorage-independent growth, and gives rise to extensive epithelial hyperplasia and eventually carcinoma in both developing and adult animals. Sox2 expression is found in high gleason grade prostate cancer, and promotes castration-resistant prostate cancer growth. The ectopic expression of SOX2 may be related to abnormal differentiation of colorectal cancer cells.

[Ma H, Young M. SOX2 and cancer literatures. Cancer Biology 2014;4(3):66-80]. (ISSN: 2150-1041). http://www.cancerbio.net. 8. doi:10.7537/marscbj040314.08

 

Key words: DNA; eternal; life; stem cell; universe

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9

Kruppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) and cancer literatures

 

Ma Hongbao 1, Margaret Young 2

 

1 Brookdale Hospital, Brooklyn, NY 11212, USA; 2 Cambridge, MA 02138, USA

ma8080@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Kruppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) is a member of the KLF family of transcription factors and regulates proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and somatic cell reprogramming. KLF4 is also a tumor suppressor in certain cancers. KLF4 can be an indicator of stem-like capacity in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), etc. The KLF4 gene is conserved in chimpanzee, Rhesus monkey, dog, cow, mouse, rat, chicken, zebrafish, and frog, etc. Kruppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) is highly expressed in more than 70% of breast cancers and functions as an oncogene. KLF4 inhibits lung cancer cell invasion by suppressing SPARC gene expression.

[Ma H, Young M. Kruppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) and cancer literatures. Cancer Biology 2014;4(3):81-94]. (ISSN: 2150-1041). http://www.cancerbio.net. 9. doi:10.7537/marscbj040314.09

 

Key words: DNA; eternal; life; stem cell; universe

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10

The Reviewing of Prostate Tumors Growing with Emphasized on Molecular Genetics

 

Mohammadhossein  Bahrami

 

MSc in Applied Biomolecular Technology, The University of Nottingham, Faculty of Medicine & Health Sciences, School of Clinical Sciences, Division of Preclinical Oncology, Cancer Genetics & Stem Cells Group, Queen's Medical Centre

bahmanimohammadhossein14@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Early detection through serum examining for prostate specific antigen (PSA) and improved procedures for surgical intervention and radiation therapy have significantly decreased  the number of fatalities; however, there is still no main cure for men with advanced disease. Prostate tumors growing afflict one man in nine over the age of 66 and represent the often frequently diagnosed cancer in American men. Therefore, much evidence has been dedicated to identifying prognostic markers that distinguish indolent versus aggressive forms of prostate tumors growing. Indeed, less evidence has been devoted to understanding the molecular mechanisms that underlie real prostate growth and development or cancer initiation and progression significantly. We think on key regulatory molecules that have been implicated by result of patterns of allelic loss in man prostate tumors growing and/or by reverse genetic approaches in the mouse. In this review, we address recent expansion due to the central objectives of understanding parameters of real versus unreal prostatic development and of elucidating a molecular pathway for prostate tumors growing progression.

[Mohammadhossein  Bahrami. The Reviewing of Prostate Tumors Growing with Emphasized on Molecular Genetics. Cancer Biology 2014;4(3):95-99]. (ISSN: 2150-1041). http://www.cancerbio.net. 10. doi:10.7537/marscbj040314.10

 

Keywords: key regulatory molecules, Tumors growing, radiation therapy

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The manuscripts in this issue were presented as online first for peer-review starting from September 2, 2014

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