Science Journal

 

Cancer Biology

(Cancer Biology)

ISSN: 2150-1041 (print); ISSN: 2150-105X (online), Quarterly

 
Volume 4 / Issue 4, Cumulated No. 16, December 25, 2014
Cover, Introduction, Contents, doi:10.7537/j.issn.2150-1041

 

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CONTENTS  

No.

Titles / Authors /Abstracts

Full Text

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1

Effectiveness of different solvents extracts from edible mushrooms in inhibiting the growth of tumor cells

 

Ahmed Younis1,2*, Jennifer Stewart1, Fang-Sheng Wu1, Hussien El Shikh 2,4, Fathy Hassan3, Mahmoud Elaasser 4

 

1 Department of Biology, Collage of Humanities and Science, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, 842012, USA.

2 Department of Botany and Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Al Azhar University, 11787 Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt.

3 Food Technology Research Institution, Agricultural Research Center, Giza, Egypt.

4 The Regional Center for Mycology and Biotechnology, Al Azhar University, 11787 Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt.

E mails: a.younis81@yahoo.com, amyounis@vcu.edu, mmelaasser@hotmail.com, jstewart@vcu.edu.

*Corresponding author: Ahmed Younis - Department of Biology, Collage of Humanities and Science, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, 842012, USA. Email: a.younis81@yahoo.com. phone: +2 01007055145, +1 8048280650.

 

Abstract: Edible mushrooms have become so bountiful and nourishing as they are a valuable source of nutritional ingredients and biologically active compounds. Moreover, edible mushroom have many medicinal properties, including antitumor activity. In this study, we extracted various parts of three edible mushrooms including Flammulina velutipes, Ganoderma lucidum and Pleurotus eryngii by different polar and non-polar solvents and tested the effectiveness of these extracts in inhibiting the growth of three carcinoma cell lines including human liver carcinoma (Hep G2), the human colonic epithelial carcinoma (HCT 116) and the human cervical cancer cells (HeLa) using 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. We observed that the extracts of fresh and lyophilized fruiting bodies had a stronger antitumor effect than extracts from mycelia and broth when extracted by water and methanol. The highest antitumor activity was by the water extract of F. velutipes lyophilized fruiting bodies with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 7.30.7, 6.90.5and 5.20.4 g/ml against Hep G2, HCT 116 and HeLa cells, respectively. Also water extracts of G. lucidum lyophilized fruiting bodies showed high antitumor effect with IC50 of 10.51.1, 7.90.6 and 21.42.1 g /ml against Hep G2, HCT 116 and HeLa cells, respectively. The lowest effect was observed by ether extract of F. velutipes broth with maximal inhibitory percentage of 5.10.8% against HCT 116 cells. In summary, common edible mushrooms may be a source of antitumor compounds.

[Ahmed Younis, Jennifer Stewart, Fang-Sheng Wu, Hussien El Shikh, Fathy Hassan, Mahmoud Elaasser. Effectiveness of different solvents extracts from edible mushrooms in inhibiting the growth of tumor cells. Cancer Biology 2014;4(4):1-15]. (ISSN: 2150-1041). http://www.cancerbio.net. 1. doi:10.7537/marscbj040414.01

 

Keywords: Antitumor activity, Ganoderma lucidum; Flammulina velutipes; Pleurotus eryngii, edible mushroom.

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2

Metastasis

 

Ma Hongbao 1, Margaret Ma 2, Yang Yan 1

 

1 Brookdale Hospital, Brooklyn, New York 11212, USA; 2 Cambridge, MA 02138, USA

ma8080@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Cancer begins when cells in a part of the body start to grow out of control. There are many kinds of cancer, but they all start because of out-of-control growth of abnormal cells. Metastasis is the spread of a cancer from one organ to another organ or place, and the new disease occurrences are generated as metastases. Metastasis is a complex series of steps in which cancer cells leave the original tumor site and migrate to other parts of the body via the bloodstream, the lymphatic system, or by direct extension. To do so, malignant cells break away from the primary tumor and attach to and degrade proteins that make up the surrounding extracellular matrix, which separates the tumor from adjoining tissues. Metastatic cancers may be found at the same time as the primary tumor, or months or years later. When a second tumor is found in a patient that has been treated for cancer in the past, it is more often a metastasis than another primary tumor.

[Ma H, Ma M, Yang Y. Metastasis. Cancer Biology 2014;4(4):16-21]. (ISSN: 2150-1041). http://www.cancerbio.net. 2. doi:10.7537/marscbj040414.02

 

Key words: cancer; DNA; life; stem cell; metastasis

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3

Unfolded protein response activity and cell cycle analysis in K562 cell line

 

Ali Bazi1, Mehran Gholamin2, Mohamadreza Keramati1, 4, Mahdi Esmailzade2

 

1 Cancer molecular pathology research center, Imam Reza hospital, faculty of medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

2Division of Human Genetics, Immunology Research Center, Avicenna Research Institute, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

3 Cancer molecular pathology research center, Imam Reza hospital, faculty of medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran (Email; keramatimr@mums.ac.ir).

 

Abstract: Bakground: UPR (Unfolded protein response) is a potent intracellular signaling pathway originating from endoplasmic reticulum(ER). UPR activation results in a generalized improvement in cell function under stress sates and increase resistance of cells to pathologic stimulus. In case of failure of accommodation to stress, UPR activates apoptotic routes in order to remove unhealthy cells. Role of UPR in a diverse spectrum of disorders including various cancers has been established. Although UPR has been widely investigated in many studies, its effects on cell cycle has been poorly understood. Material and methods: In this research, we examined effects of two common ER stress inducers, tapasigargin (Tg), tunciamycin (Tm), individually and in combination with oxidative stress on UPR activation and cell cycle kinetics in K562 cell line. In this regard, we used PCR to assess Xbp1 expression, major UPR target gene, and Propidium iodide (PI) staining and flow cytometric analysis to evaluate cell cycle. Results: We observed that Tg, Tm and oxidative stresses, individually and in different combinations with each other activate UPR signaling in cells, although we did not observe major effects on cell cycle. Discussion: it seems that UPR activation, although may affect different signaling pathways within cells, do not influence the cell cycle progression in K562 cell line.

[Ali Bazi, Mehran Gholamin, Mohamadreza Keramati, Mahdi Esmailzade. Unfolded protein response activity and cell cycle analysis in K562 cell line. Cancer Biology 2014;4(4):22-25]. (ISSN: 2150-1041). http://www.cancerbio.net. 3. doi:10.7537/marscbj040414.03

 

Keywords: ER stress, unfolded protein response, K562 cell line, cell cycle analysis

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4

Toxicological Effects Of Aqueous Extract Of Anogeissus Leiocarpus Leaf, Carica Papaya Leaf, And Mangifera Indica Stem Bark (A Herbal Product Used Against Typhoid Fever) On Albino Rats.

 

V.N Chidozie1 and G.I Adoga2

 

1. Federal College of Veterinary and Medical Laboratory Technology Vom, Plateau state Nigeria.

2. Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Jos, Jos, Plateau state Nigeria.

Atoka2010@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The effects of various concentrations of aqueous extract of Anogeissus leoicarpus (marke) leaf, Carica papaya (pawpaw) leaf and Mangifera indica (mango) stem barks on some biochemical parameters, haematological parameters and histopathology were investigated in albino rats. The LD50 could not be calculated as no death was recorded even at a high dose of 5000 mg/kg. Phytochemical analysis of the plants’ materials showed the presence of resins, alkaloids, saponins, tannins, glycosides and flavonoids in marke. No glycosides in mango and no tannins in pawpaw. The biochemical and haematological values revealed no statistical significant difference (p < 0.05) between the control groups and the groups fed with the crude plants’ extracts. The results, therefore, strongly suggest that these aqueous plants’ extracts are safe for oral consumption as they appear not to be hepatotoxic in rats, rather the animals increased in weight and had improved haematological values. The findings are of nutritional, clinical and veterinary relevance considering the diverse applications of these plants in most populations.

[V.N Chidozie and G.I Adoga. Toxicological Effects Of Aqueous Extract Of Anogeissus Leiocarpus Leaf, Carica Papaya Leaf, And Mangifera Indica Stem Bark (A Herbal Product Used Against Typhoid Fever) On Albino Rats. Cancer Biology 2014;4(4):26-34]. (ISSN: 2150-1041). http://www.cancerbio.net. 4. doi:10.7537/marscbj040414.04

 

Key words: Anogeissus leoicarpus, Carica papaya, Mangifera indica, Biochemical, Haematological, Histopathology, LD50.

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5

Electronics In Biomedical And Instrumentation

 

Ali Akbar Kikha Javan

 

Department of Electrical, Islamic Azad University, Zabol, Iran

KeykhaheAliAkbar@chmail.ir

 

Abstract: The Biomedical Electronics Technology takes you beyond the basics of electronics and electricity into the world of advanced technical systems associated with medical care. You will find this program valuable if you want to develop the skills and the practical background necessary to inspect, test, calibrate, and repair advanced medical equipment and instrumentation, and to gain the interpersonal skills required to work with medical personnel. The merging of Electronics with Biotechnology promises the advent of a totally new class of devices such as sensors and actuators (MEMS&NEMS) with applications in diagnostics, responsive drug delivery, biocompatibility, self-assembly etc. Proteins and nucleic acid are information rich molecules with structural and electrical properties making their incorporation in the human manufacturing arsenal an attractive proposition. This combination has become possible as today both top-down traditional manufacturing (e.g., MEMS and NEMS) Without biomedical scientists, departments such as accident and emergency and operating theatres could not properly function. The many roles include tests for emergency blood transfusions and blood grouping as well as tests on samples from patients who have overdosed on unknown substances, or may have leukemia or are suspected of having a heart attack. The successful performance of this key role in modern healthcare relies on the accuracy and efficiency of work by biomedical scientists because patients' lives and the treatment of illness depend on their skill and knowledge.

[Ali Akbar Kikha Javan. Electronics In Biomedical And Instrumentation. Cancer Biology 2014;4(4):35-41]. (ISSN: 2150-1041). http://www.cancerbio.net. 5. doi:10.7537/marscbj040414.05

 

Keywords: Biomedical Electronics Technology; medical care; medical equipment and instrumentation; sensor; actuator; diagnostics; biocompatibility; protein; nucleic acid

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5

6

LONG LIVE!... (A New theory on YOGA”)

 

M.Arulmani, B.E.; V.R.Hema Latha, M.A., M.Sc., M.Phil.

 

M.Arulmani, B.E.

(Engineer)

m.arulmani58@gmail.com

V.R.Hema Latha, M.A., M.Sc., M.Phil.

(Biologist)

vrhemalatha58@gmail.com

 

Abstract: This scientific research article focus that the Philosophy of “YOGA” shall be considered as closely associated with the prehistoric “HERBAL INDO TRIO DRUG” which enabled human life sustained for thousands of years without any “Disease”. The “YOGA” shall also be called as “IMMUNE” or “DIVINE DRUG”. In proto Indo-Europe language the divine drug (Trinity) shall also be called as “YOKAM” or “THAMIL MARUNTHU”. It is further focused that the philosophy of Ancient medicine shall be considered prepared based on three-in-one domain formula of immunity for up keeping of Total Health system. During the course of Expanding universe the growth of various radiations such as alpha, Beta, Gamma and birth of various microbes like Bacteria, Virus, Fungi, the Ancient human races might switch over to adopt various forms of other alternative Medicines like Allopathy, Homeopathy, Unani etc. for immunization of  human health system. YOKAM shall be considered as DRUG (Organic) rather than MEDICINE (Inorganic). Yokam shall mean IMMUNE rather than STAMINA- M. Arulmani, Tamil Based Indian

[M.Arulmani, B.E.; V.R.Hema Latha, M.A., M.Sc., M.Phil. LONG LIVE!... (A New theory on YOGA”)

. Cancer Biology 2014;4(4):42-47]. (ISSN: 2150-1041). http://www.cancerbio.net. 6. doi:10.7537/marscbj040414.06

 

2.       Key Words:

a)                 Philosophy of “Perfect health”?...

b)                 Philosophy of “Immunity”?...

c)                 Philosophy of “Yoke”?...

d)                 Etymology of word “Disease”?...

e)                 Etymology of word “Sin”?...

f)                  Etymology of word “Yoga”?...

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7

Organically grown fruits’ effect on reproductive fitness of Drosophila melanogaster

 

Wafa Faroki, M.S. Krishna*

 

Drosophila stock center, Department of Studies in Zoology, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysore - 560006. Karnataka, India

drosokrish@gmail.com, farokiwafa@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Quality of food consumed by an organism plays a very strong environmental impact on the organism’s health and fitness. A factor which is easily and quickly influenced by the type of food consumed is reproductive fitness. In the present study D melanogaster were reared in wheat cream agar media as well as media prepared from organically and conventionally grown fruits. These flies were then subjected to tests to study their reproductive fitness. The results obtained showed that consumption of organic fruits increased the reproductive capacity of the fly however no significant beneficial effect was observed when longevity was considered as a parameter.

[Wafa Faroki, M.S. Krishna. Organically grown fruits’ effect on reproductive fitness of Drosophila melanogaster. Cancer Biology 2014;4(4):48-55]. (ISSN: 2150-1041). http://www.cancerbio.net. 7. doi:10.7537/marscbj040414.07

 

Keywords: mating ability, D. melanogaster, organic fruits.

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8

Synthesis and Spectroscopic Studies of Na2[PCI3(OZ)]  QUOTE Na2PCI3O2 and Na2[PCI3(S2O3)] as Anti-cancer Agent

 

Golpar Golmohammadzadeh1, Shahriar Ghamamy2, Sajjad Sedaghat2, Soheil Zabihi3

 

1.         Faculty of Pharmacology, Sari University, Sari, Iran

2.         Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Islamic Azad University, Malard Branch, Malard, Iran

3.         Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Ardabil Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ardabil, Iran

 

Abstract: Two new organophosphorus compounds,Sodium trichloroperoxophosphate (STFPOB) and Sodium  trichlorotiosolphatophosphate (STCTSP) were synthesized from the reaction between  and  with   respectively. Their chemical composition is characterized obviously by spectroscopic methods such as IR and UV/Vis techniques. Also one of these new compounds (STFPOB) has showed excellent anti canceractivity against 742 (Colon adenocarcinoma) cell lines.

[Golpar Golmohammadzadeh, Shahriar Ghamamy, Sajjad Sedaghat, Soheil Zabihi. Synthesis and Spectroscopic Studies of Na2[PCI3(OZ)]  QUOTE Na2PCI3O2 and Na2[PCI3(S2O3)] as Anti-cancer Agent. Cancer Biology 2014;4(4):56-58]. (ISSN: 2150-1041). http://www.cancerbio.net. 8. doi:10.7537/marscbj040414.08

 

Keywords: Organophosphorous, anticancer,  QUOTE PCI3  PCI3, Sodium trichloroperoxophosphate, IR.UV-Vis

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9

Cancer

 

Ma Hongbao 1, Margaret Young 2, Yang Yan 1

 

1 Brookdale Hospital, Brooklyn, New York 11212, USA; 2 Cambridge, MA 02138, USA

ma8080@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Nearly all cancers are caused by abnormalities in the genetic material of the transformed cells. These abnormalities are caused by the effects of carcinogens, such as tobacco smoke, radiation, chemicals, or infectious agents. Tumor (also called neoplasm) is an abnormal growth of tissue. This abnormal growth usually but not always forms a mass growth. The World Health Organization (WHO) classifies neoplasms into four main groups: benign neoplasms, in situ neoplasms, malignant neoplasms, and neoplasms of uncertain or unknown behavior. A malignant neoplasm is a cancer. Cancer is a disease of abnormal cell growth possibly spreading to other parts of the body in animal inculding human being. Benign tumors are not cancer that do not spread to other parts of the body.

[Ma H, Young M, Yang Y. Cancer. Cancer Biology 2014;4(4):59-65]. (ISSN: 2150-1041). http://www.cancerbio.net. 9. doi:10.7537/marscbj040414.09

 

Key words: DNA; eternal; life; stem cell; universe

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10

Cancer Gene List

 

Ma Hongbao 1, Margaret Ma 2, Yang Yan 1

 

1 Brookdale Hospital, Brooklyn, New York 11212, USA; 2 Cambridge, MA 02138, USA

ma8080@gmail.com

 

Abstract: There are thousands of genes that are related to the cancer development. This asreticle gives 1400 genes that are supposed as cancer genes. Here it gives related cancer gene information.

[Ma H, Ma M, Yang Y. Cancer Gene List. Cancer Biology 2014;4(4):66-93]. (ISSN: 2150-1041). http://www.cancerbio.net. 10. doi:10.7537/marscbj040414.10

 

Key words: cancer; gene; DNA; life; medicine

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The manuscripts in this issue were presented as online first for peer-review starting from October 3, 2014
 
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