Science Journal

 

Cancer Biology

 

ISSN: 2150-1041 (print); ISSN: 2150-105X (online), doi prefix: 10.7537, Quarterly

 
Volume 5 / Issue 1, Cumulated No. 17, March 25, 2015
Cover, Introduction, Contents 

 

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CONTENTS  

No.

Titles / Authors /Abstracts

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1

Human T-Cell Leukemia Lymphoma Virus (HTLV): From Discovery to Oncogenesis

 

Eman Al Mussaed

 

Department of Basic Science, Hematopathology Division, Princess Nourah Bint Abdulrahman University, College of Medicine, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. dreman_almussaed@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Human T lymphotropic viruses (HTLVs) are complex oncoretrovirus that do not contain a proto-oncogene in their genome; however, they are capable of transforming primary T lymphocytes. There are four known strains of HTLV including HTLV type 1 (HTLV-1), HTLV-2, HTLV-3 and HTLV-4. . HTLV-1 is the etiological agent of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) and is also associated with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) and an inflammatory neurodegenerative disease named HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that the relative percentage of malignant lymphoid proliferations varies widely according to geographical location and ethnic populations. Despite similarities with HTLV-1 in its genomic organization, HTLV-2 is only associated with neurological disorders but does not promote leukemia or lymphoma. There have been no diseases associated with HTLV-3 or HTLV-4 to date. In this review, we aim to summarize current information about the HTLVs regarding epidemiology, diagnosis, clinical features of associated diseases, molecular pathogenesis of transformation and Oncogenesis. Also, we highlight the recently advances of management of its associated diseases.

[Eman Al Mussaed. Human T-Cell Leukemia Lymphoma Virus (HTLV): From Discovery to Oncogenesis. Cancer Biology 2015;5(1):1-10]. (ISSN: 2150-1041). http://www.cancerbio.net. 1. doi:10.7537/marscbj050115.01

 

Key words: Human T lymphotropic viruses, leukemia, lymphoma, Oncogenesis.

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2

Health Education Barriers, Encountered by Nurses at Oral Healthcare units.

 

Ibrahim AF1 Abd El Azize Th. M. 2.

 

1Nursing Education Department, Faculty of Nursing, Alexandria University. Egypt

2Medical Surgical Department, Faculty of Nursing, Alexandria University. Egypt

*Azza_fathy2008@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: World-wide accepted methods for prevention and management of oral health problems are the health education messages. Expert health educators are required with appropriate knowledge, skills related to the recognition, diagnosis, caring and referral for patients with oral health complains. Nurses are facing multiple difficulties when assuming health education activities with dental patients. Therefore, this is a descriptive study, aimed to determine the health education barriers encountered by nurses at oral healthcare units. The study was conducted at the two major oral health settings in Alexandria namely; Alexandria Dental Research Center at Smoha and Free dental and oral clinic in El Amery University hospital. Convenient sample comprised of 125 nurses; 35 from Alexandria Dental Research Center at Smoha and 70 from free dental and oral clinic in El Amery University hospital. Health Education Barriers Questionnaire (HEBQ) was used to collect the necessary data of the study which was developed by Abd El Mohsen in 2009 and modified by the researchers. Based on the analysis of the subject's responses, the results revealed that: the nurses at oral health units have a serious lack in knowledge regarding health education process and there are several barriers and difficulties faced them in providing oral health education related to themselves, patients, health setting and staff. The major recommendation of present study is to develop an oral health education strategic plan for nurses to help them; managing any obstacles may face them in oral health education.

[Ibrahim AF Abd El Azize Th. M. Health Education Barriers, Encountered by Nurses at Oral Healthcare units. Cancer Biology 2015;5(1):11-23]. (ISSN: 2150-1041). http://www.cancerbio.net. 2. doi:10.7537/marscbj050115.02

 

Key words: Oral health, education, Barriers, Nurses

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3

Uses of Cucumis metuliferus: A Review

 

Usman J.G., 1, 4* Sodipo, O.A., 2 Kwaghe, A.V.3 and Sandabe, U.K. 4

 

1. National Veterinary Research Institute Vom, Plateau State, Nigeria

2. Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, College of Medical Sciences, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria

3. Livestock Department and Pest Control Services, Federal Ministry of   Agriculture and Rural Development, Area 11, Garki, Abuja, Nigeria.

4. Department of Veterinary Physiology, Pharmacology and Biochemistry, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria.

* Corresponding author, E-mail address: najocheri@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The main constraint of people in the developing world to modern medicine is poverty. This has led individuals to ancient times where uses of plants as a cure for various ailments are cheaper and easy to assess. People in the developing countries or rural areas rely on traditional medicine for their primary health care, majority of which use plants or their active principles. Another world wide problem is increase resistance of pathogens to commercial drugs; this has also necessitated a search for new antimicrobial substances from other sources, including plants. The plant Cucumis metuliferus and other plants of the family Cucurbitaceae have been reported to have medicinal value; this review is aimed at revealing some of the diseases or ailments that are treated with the plant Cucumis metuliferus.

[Usman J.G., Sodipo, O.A., Kwaghe, A.V. and Sandabe, U.K. Uses of Cucumis metuliferus: A Review. Cancer Biology 2015;5(1):24-34]. (ISSN: 2150-1041). http://www.cancerbio.net. 3. doi:10.7537/marscbj050115.03

 

Key words: poverty, traditional medicine, resistance, plants, Cucumis metuliferus

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4

Cancer and Transdifferentiation Study Literatures

 

Ma Hongbao 1, Margaret Ma 2, Yang Yan 1

 

1 Brookdale Hospital, Brooklyn, New York 11212, USA; 2 Cambridge, MA 02138, USA

ma8080@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Transdifferentiation is a process where one mature somatic cell transforms into another mature somatic cell without undergoing an intermediate pluripotent state or progenitor cell type. It is a type of metaplasia, which includes all cell fate switches, including the interconversion of stem cells. Current uses of transdifferentiation include disease modeling and drug discovery and in the future may include gene therapy and regenerative medicine. Cancer is the general name for a group of more than 100 diseases. Although there are many kinds of cancer, all cancers start because abnormal cells grow out of control. Untreated cancers can cause serious illness and death. The body is made up of trillions of living cells. Normal body cells grow, divide, and die in an orderly fashion. During the early years of a person’s life, normal cells divide faster to allow the person to grow. After the person becomes an adult, most cells divide only to replace worn-out or dying cells or to repair injuries. This article introduces recent reports as references in the related studies.

[Ma H, Young M, Yang Y. Cancer and Transdifferentiation Study Literatures. Cancer Biology 2015;5(1):35-57]. (ISSN: 2150-1041). http://www.cancerbio.net. 4. doi:10.7537/marscbj050115.04

 

Key words: transdifferentiation; cancer; life; stem cell

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5

Cancer and Alternative Treatment Literatures

 

Ma Hongbao

 

Brookdale Hospital, Brooklyn, New York 11212, USA

ma8080@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Alternative cancer treatments are alternative or complementary treatments for cancer including diet and exercise, chemicals, herbs, devices, and manual procedures. Some treatments that have been proposed in the past have been found in clinical trials to be useless or unsafe. Some of these obsolete or disproven treatments continue to be promoted, sold, and used. A distinction is typically made between complementary treatments which do not disrupt conventional medical treatment, and alternative treatments which may replace conventional treatment. Alternative cancer treatments are typically contrasted with experimental cancer treatments – which are treatments for which experimental testing is underway – and with complementary treatments, which are non-invasive practices used alongside other treatment. Since the 1940s, medical science has developed chemotherapy, radiation therapy, adjuvant therapy and the newer targeted therapies, as well as refined surgical techniques for removing cancer. Before the development of these modern, evidence-based treatments, 90% of cancer patients died within five years. This Article introduces recent reports as references in the related studies.

[Ma H. Cancer and Alternative Treatment Literatures. Cancer Biology 2015;5(1):58-76]. (ISSN: 2150-1041). http://www.cancerbio.net. 5. doi:10.7537/marscbj050115.05

 

Key words: cancer; alternative; life; medicine; stem cell; treatment

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6

Brain Cancer Study Literatures

 

Ma Hongbao 1, Margaret Ma 2, Yang Yan 1

 

1 Brookdale Hospital, Brooklyn, New York 11212, USA; 2 Cambridge, MA 02138, USA

ma8080@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Cancer is the general name for a group of more than 100 diseases. Although there are many kinds of cancer, all cancers start because abnormal cells grow out of control. Untreated cancers can cause serious illness and death. The body is made up of trillions of living cells. Normal body cells grow, divide, and die in an orderly fashion. During the early years of a person’s life, normal cells divide faster to allow the person to grow. After the person becomes an adult, most cells divide only to replace worn-out or dying cells or to repair injuries. The brain cancer occurs when abnormal cells form within the brain. There are two main types of tumors: malignant or cancerous tumors and benign tumors. Cancerous tumors can be divided into primary tumors that started within the brain and those that spread from somewhere else known as brain metastasis tumors. Treatment may include some combination of surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Anticonvulsant medication may be needed if seizures occur. This article introduces recent reports as references in the related studies.

[Ma H, Young M, Yang Y. Brain Cancer Study Literatures. Cancer Biology 2015;5(1):77-92]. (ISSN: 2150-1041). http://www.cancerbio.net. 6. doi:10.7537/marscbj050115.06

 

Key words: brain; cancer; life; stem cell; disease

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7

Liver Cancer Study Literatures

 

Ma Hongbao 1, Margaret Ma 2, Yang Yan 1

 

1 Brookdale Hospital, Brooklyn, New York 11212, USA; 2 Cambridge, MA 02138, USA

ma8080@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Cancer is the general name for a group of more than 100 diseases. Although there are many kinds of cancer, all cancers start because abnormal cells grow out of control. Untreated cancers can cause serious illness and death. The body is made up of trillions of living cells. Normal body cells grow, divide, and die in an orderly fashion. During the early years of a person’s life, normal cells divide faster to allow the person to grow. After the person becomes an adult, most cells divide only to replace worn-out or dying cells or to repair injuries. Liver cancer is a cancer that originates in the liver. Liver tumors are discovered on medical imaging equipment or present themselves symptomatically as an abdominal mass, abdominal pain, yellow skin, nausea or liver dysfunction. The leading causes of liver cancer is cirrhosis due to hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and alcohol. Liver cancers are different than liver metastases, which originate from elsewhere in the body and spread to the liver. Liver cancers are formed from either the liver itself or from structures within the liver, including blood vessels or the bile duct. Primary liver cancer is the sixth most frequent cancer globally and the second leading cause of cancer death. In 2012 it occurred in 782,000 people and resulted in 746,000 deaths. This artcile introduces recent reports as references in the related studies.

[Ma H, Young M, Yang Y. Liver Cancer Study Literatures. Cancer Biology 2015;5(1):93-107]. (ISSN: 2150-1041). http://www.cancerbio.net. 7. doi:10.7537/marscbj050115.07

 

Key words: Liver; cancer; life; cell; medicine

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8

Determination of Some Vitamins in Primary Brain Tumors Patients

 

Abdul-Wahab R. Hamad1, Khaled, N. Al-Kubaisy1, Walid W. Al-Rawi3, Raad K. Muslih4 and Nuha Auwaed Mashaly4.

 

1Department of Medical Allied of Sciences, Zarqa University College, Al-Balqa, Applied University, Jordan.

3College of Medicine, University of Duhok, Iraq.

4Department of Chemistry, Al-Mustansiriyah University, Iraq.

 

Abstract: The requirements and / or the availability of various nutritional factors for the living cell(s) can be quite variable under both physiological and pathological situations. Vitamins are an established component of the spectrum of necessary constituents of food to the living tissues and many of them have proved a protective role in cancer aetiology. This is a prospective study to investigate the levels of few vitamins in sera, saliva, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and tumour tissues in the context of primary brain tumours (PBT), both benign and malignant, among a group of Iraqi patients. This study had been conducted between November 2011 and October 2012 at the Neurosurgical Hospitals. Out of the 107 patients suffering form PBT with an age range 2-75 years (mean 35, the SD 19), 56 were males (52.3%), and 51 were females (47.6%). The most affected age group was 31-40 years (17.75%), 89% of the patients were under the age of 60 years. There were 44 gliomas (both benign and anaplastic) and 32 meningiomas (benign). A group of 50 patients with congenital hydrocephalus were involved in the study for CSF sampling. Forty age- and sex-matched normal subjects were used as controls in serum and saliva measurements. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used in the study. All 3 vitamins have shown lower values in malignant tumours patients (in serum, saliva, CSF, and tumour tissues) compared to those with benign tumours and controls in the biological fluids and tissues that were assayed with statistical significance. These changes are quite significant, the findings should be considered in further research to determine both the specificity and sensitivity of low vitamins levels in the possible aetiological association with PBT.

[Abdul-Wahab R. Hamad, Khaled, N. Al-Kubaisy, Walid W. Al-Rawi, Raad K. Muslih and Nuha Auwaed Mashaly. Determination of Some Vitamins in Primary Brain Tumors Patients. Cancer Biology 2015;5(1):108-113]. (ISSN: 2150-1041). http://www.cancerbio.net. 8. doi:10.7537/marscbj050115.08

 

Key words: Primary brain tumour; vitamins A, C, and E; saliva, cerebrospinal fluid.

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9

Anti-microbial and anti-viral polysaccharides derived from cyanobacteria in different closed lakes

 

M.S. Aly*,  W. A. Helmy**

 

*Agricultural Microbiology Dept., **Chemical and Microbial Natural Products Dept., National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

Corresponding author e-mail: mohamed.saad53@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: The aim of this study is to test the effect of some extraction products derived from algae Spirulina against virus (Polio virus) and some bacteria (10 isolates) which cause many diseases for plants, animals and human. Spirulina Platensis was isolated from El-Khadra Lake at Wadi El-Natrun, Egypt. The tested bacteria and virus were isolated from different closed lakes at Wadi El-Natrun and NRC respectively. The results showed that antibacterial extracts (80 mg Spirulina extract/ 1000ml) were more effective against Micrococcus sp., pseudomonas sp., and Xanthomonas while less effective against Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Aeromonas, Citrobacter, and Salmonella sp. The same extracts had moderate effect against Bacillus and Klebsella. On the other hand, the fraction 2 was more active at 50g/ml, where viral removal was at ratio of 62.5 %. The fractions 2 and 5 caused 50% reduction for the same virus. So, these fractions may be possible for human and animals as a treatment for many diseases.

[M.S. Aly, W. A. Helmy. Anti-microbial and anti-viral polysaccharides derived from cyanobacteria in different closed lakes. Cancer Biology 2015;5(1):114-118]. (ISSN: 2150-1041). http://www.cancerbio.net. 9. doi:10.7537/marscbj050115.09

 

Key words: Cynaobacteria, Spirulina, antiviral activity, antimicrobial activity.

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The manuscripts in this issue were presented as online first for peer-review starting from February 23, 2015

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