Science Journal

 

 

Cancer Biology

 

ISSN: 2150-1041 (print); ISSN: 2150-105X (online), doi prefix: 10.7537, Quarterly

 
Volume 6 / Issue 4, Cumulated No. 24, December 25, 2016
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CONTENTS  

No.

Titles / Authors /Abstracts

Full Text

No.

1

Prognostic and predictive value of excision repair cross-complementation group-1protein expression in locally advanced bladder cancer

 

Wael Mansour1, Walid Almorsy1 and Maha shamloula2

 

Clinical Oncology Department, Histopathology Department Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Gharbia, Egypt.

walidaa1@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: A viable treatment option for locally advanced bladder cancer includes tri-modality therapy with a combination of transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT), chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Cisplatin is the most important chemotherapeutic agent for locally advanced bladder cancer and is usually administered with Gemcitabine. Increased expression of excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC1) protein is associated with resistance to cisplatin-based chemotherapy in various tumor types. The aim of the present study was to assess the prognostic and predictive value of (ERCC1) protein in locally advanced bladder cancer patients who received cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Patients and Methods: Seventy eight patients with non-metastatic locally advanced bladder cancer were included in this study between June 2013 and December 2014. Paraffin blocks obtained from all patients were analyzed for ERCC1 in immunohistochemical expression. Results: Complete response rate was higher in patients with negative ERCC1 expression (94.1%) than weak, moderate and strong positive (70%, 50%& 33.3% respectively) which was statistically significant (P= 0.019). The 2-year disease-free survival rates for patients with ERCC1-weak positive was 40%, while it was 16.7% in moderate +ve ERCC1-, and 0% in strong +ve ERCC1, however, it was 70% in ERCC1-negative patients. The interaction term between ERCC1 expression and adjuvant platinol based chemotherapy showed significance for overall survival (P = 0.001) and disease-free survival (P = 0.01). Conclusion: ERCC1appear to be potentially useful prognostic and predictive markers in non-metastatic locally advanced bladder cancer.

[Wael Mansour, Walid Almorsy and Maha shamloula. Prognostic and predictive Valueofexcision repair cross-complementation group-1protein expression in locally advanced bladder cancer. Cancer Biology 2016;6(4):1-8]. ISSN: 2150-1041 (print); ISSN: 2150-105X (online). http://www.cancerbio.net. 1. doi:10.7537/marscbj060416.01.

 

Key words: locally advanced bladder cancer, ERCC1, cisplatin-based chemotherapy, prognosis.

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2

Integration of Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy and Interval Debulking Surgeries in Patients with Advanced Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

 

Loaie El-Helw 1,2, Abeda Raiyan1, Rajanee Bhana1

 

1 The Cancer Centre, the Royal Stoke University Hospital, Stoke-on-Trent, UK

2 The Department of Internal Medicine, the Medical Oncology Unit,

Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt

loaieelhelw@hotmail.com, loaie.elhelw@uhns.nhs.uk

 

Abstract: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) and interval debulking surgery (IDS) after 3 NAC cycles is an acceptable approach to achieve optimal cytoreduction in patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (AEOC) who are not candidate for primary debulking surgery (PDS). The best timing of cytoreductive surgery and the role of late debulking surgery (LDS) after 6 cycles of NAC are still unclear. We aimed to study the outcome of such patients who were treated in our centre in the Royal Stoke University Hospital, Stoke-On-Trent between July 2009 and July 2014. One hundred and eight patients with AEOC were treated under our gynaecology oncology team during that period. Sixty six patients (61.1%) were in stages III and 42 (38.9%) in stage IV. All patients received NAC; 64 patients (59.3%) had paclitaxel and carboplatin regimen and 44 (40.7%) single agent carboplatin. Response to chemotherapy was assessed after 2 cycles; 81 patients (75%) had partial response, 21 (19.4%) stable disease and 6 (5.6%) progressive disease. Forty one patients (38%) proceeded to IDS after cycle 3 and 11 patients (10.2%) to LDS after cycle 6 but 56 (51.9%) had no debulking surgery (NDS). After a median follow up period of 18 months (range 6-84 months), 95 patients (88%) had relapsing/progressive disease. The median PFS durations were 13 and 12 months for patients who had either IDS and LDS respectively compared to 8 months for NDS. The 2 years PFS probabilities were 18% for patients who had IDS, 15% for LDS compared to 0% for NDS (P 0.000 Log rank test). The median overall survival (OS) durations were 48, 33 and 18 months for patients who had IDS, LDS and NDS respectively. The 2 years OS probabilities were 75% for patients who had either IDS, or LDS compared to 38% for NDS (P.000 Log rank test). In our study, we documented PFS and OS advantages for patients who IDS or LDS compared to NDS and therefore should be considered whenever possible as part of the primary treatment of AEOC patients. Interval debulking surgery (IDS) offers longer duration and higher probabilities of PFS and OS compared to LDS. More patients-therefore- should be selected for IDS. There is a need for improving NAC possibly with integrating target agents and the use of more intensified schedules.

[Loaie El-Helw, Abeda Raiyan, Rajanee Bhana. Integration of Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy and Interval Debulking Surgeries in Patients with Advanced Epithelial Ovarian Cancer. Cancer Biology 2016;6(4):9-15]. ISSN: 2150-1041 (print); ISSN: 2150-105X (online). http://www.cancerbio.net. 2. doi:10.7537/marscbj060416.02.

 

Key words: advanced ovarian cancer-neoadjuvant chemotherapy-surgical debulking.

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3

Demographic and genetic study for a sample of Iraqi smokers

 

Bushra jasim Mohammed 1, Amina N. AL-Thwani 1, Raghuraman Kannan 2

 

1. Institute of genetic engineering and biotechnology, University of Baghdad, Iraq

2. University of Missouri/Colombia, USA

bbushra880@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Abstract: To examine the relationship between smoking and genetic and demographic aspects, using statistical analysis and genetic techniques. Subjects and methods: One hundred and fifty of apparently healthy Iraqi heavy smoker volunteers in comparison with fifty of apparently healthy non-smoker volunteers as a control group. Information for demographic study was taken from smokers and non smokers subjects according to a questionnaire that included, name, gender, age, consumption of pack number per day and duration of smoking, in the period from the beginnings of March 2014 to the end of June 2016. Through the molecular study, DNA was extracted by using the genomic isolation kit, then subjected to PCR analysis by using four sets of primers, then the PCR product were sequenced to detect the TP53 mutations. Results: The results of the demographic study revealed that the highest number of smokers located in the age group (36-45) represented 38 (25.33%) of the total number with significant difference (P≤ 0.05). The males constituted 91(60.67%) more than females 59 (39.33%) with the high significant (P≤ 0.01). The distribution of smokers according to pack consumption number by smokers a day showed that the highest number 134 (89.33%) consumed more than one pack per day against 16 (10.67%) of one pack a day with a high significant (P≤ 0.01). Moreover the highest number 46 (30.67%) had been smoking for (16-20) year, while the lowest number 22 (14.67%) of smokers had been smoking for (5-10) years with a high significant (P≤ 0.01). The results of genetic study showed the presence of many variations in different locations in TP53 gene such as G to C polymorphism which were found in exon 5 with the percentage of (47.3 %) among smokers in comparison with non smokers control (0.0%). On the other hand, it was observed that exon 6 had deletion in a high frequency among smoker individuals at a percentage of (19.3%) rather than in the non-smokers (0.0%); however, no genetic variations were shown in exons 7 and 8.

[Mohammed B, AL-Thwani A, Kannan R. Demographic and genetic study for a sample of Iraqi smokers.. Cancer Biology 2016;6(4):16-27]. ISSN: 2150-1041 (print); ISSN: 2150-105X (online). http://www.cancerbio.net. 3. doi:10.7537/marscbj060416.03.

 

Keywords: demographic; genetic; Iraqi smokers

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4

Post-renal transplantation lymphoproliferative disorders: a retrospective review of two cases

 

Najla Moqadum, SamiaSobki, Najla Besharah, Amira Shaker

 

Department of Central Military Laboratory and Blood Bank, Prince Sultan Military Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Najlatm2011@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) encompass a heterogeneous spectrum of conditions ranging from reactive plasmacytic hyperplasia to malignant lymphoma. Many PTLD cases are a result of infection with Epstein–Barr virus (EBV). EBV is frequently detected in PTLD cells, and PTLD risk is highest among children and recipients who are EBV seronegative at the time of transplantation. PTLD is identified by having a high index of suspicion in the appropriate clinical setting. The diagnosis is made by histopathological evidence of lymphoproliferation, commonly with the presence of EBV DNA, RNA, or protein detected in tissue. Diagnosis of PTLD is not always straightforward. Despite of improvements with new tolerable therapies, survival of PTLD patients remains inferior, necessitating further international cooperation to improving long-term outcome of PTLD patients. We report here 2 cases of monomorphic B-cell PTLD (multiple myeloma and burkitt lymphoma) after successful renal transplantation. We compare clinicopathological features of these 2 cases with few cases reported in literature.

[Najla Moqadum, Samia Sobki, Najla Besharah, Amira Shaker. Post-renal transplantation lymphoproliferative disorders: a retrospective review of two cases. Cancer Biology 2016;6(4):28-31]. ISSN: 2150-1041 (print); ISSN: 2150-105X (online). http://www.cancerbio.net. 4. doi:10.7537/marscbj060416.04.

 

Keywords: Renal transplant, PTLD, Multiple myeloma, Burkitt lymphoma

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5

Induction Chemotherapy With Capecitabine And Oxaliplatin (CAPOX) Followed By Concomitant Chemoradiotherapy Before Surgical Resection In Patients With Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer

 

Mohamed El-Shebiney M.D. and Alaa Maria M.D.

 

Clinical Oncology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University Hospital, Egypt.

alaamaria1@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: Concomitant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) followed by total mesorectal excision (TME) is standard treatment for locally advanced rectal cancer. Induction chemotherapy has the advantage of earlier administration of systemic therapy and may improve distant control. Purpose: The purpose of the current study was to assess the efficacy and toxicity of induction chemotherapy (CAPOX) followed by concomitant CRT before surgery in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. Patients and Methods: A total of 31 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer were randomly assigned to induction CAPOX followed by concomitant capecitabine-RT and surgery, then the patients were received an additional 4 cycles adjuvant capecitabine. The primary end point was assessment of pathological complete response (pCR) and the feasibility of surgical resection with sphincter preservation. Results: All patients underwent surgery with sphincter preservation procedure represented in 64.5% of patients. Complete resection (R0) was recorded in 93.5%, T downstaging in 61.3% and N downstaging in 51.6%. Pathological complete response was recorded in 19.4%. Two-year OS and DFS rates were 83% and 67.4%, respectively. Diarrhea was the most common grade 3/4 toxicity seen during the induction and concomitant CRT phases. Conclusions: Our results demonstrated that, induction CAPOX followed by capecitabine-RT is feasible with tolerable toxicity and results in encouragingly high rates of pCR, R0 resection, sphincter preservation and tumor downstaging in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. Additional studies of this approach to examine more optimal regimens are warranted.

[Mohamed El-Shebiney and Alaa Maria. Induction Chemotherapy With Capecitabine And Oxaliplatin (CAPOX) Followed By Concomitant Chemoradiotherapy Before Surgical Resection In Patients With Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer. Cancer Biology 2016;6(4):32-40]. ISSN: 2150-1041 (print); ISSN: 2150-105X (online). http://www.cancerbio.net. 5. doi:10.7537/marscbj060416.05.

 

KeyWords: Rectal cancer, induction chemotherapy, combined chemoradiotherapy, sphincter preservation

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6

Integration of Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy and Interval Debulking Surgeries in Patients with Advanced Epithelial Ovarian Cancer: Our Experience.

 

Loaie El-Helw1,2, Abeda Raiyan2, Hanaa Elkhenini3,4, Rajanee Bhana2

 

1The department of medical oncology, Mansoura University, Egypt, 2 The Royal Stoke Hospital, Stoke-on-Trent, UK, 3The department of public health, Mansoura University, Egypt, 4The department of E-Health, the University of Manchester, UK

loaieelhelw@hotmail.com, loaie.elhelw@uhns.nhs.uk

 

Abstract: Purpose: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) and interval debulking surgery (IDS) after 3 NAC cycles is an acceptable approach to achieve optimal cytoreduction in patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (AEOC) who are not candidate for primary debulking surgery (PDS). The best timing of cytoreductive surgery and the role of late debulking surgery (LDS) after 6 cycles of NAC are still unclear. We aimed to study the outcome of such patients who were treated in our centre during the last 5 years. Methods: This was a retrospective study of AEOC patients who had NAC with or without IDS/LDS in the Royal Stoke Hospital, Stoke-On-Trent between July 2009 and July 2014. Results: One hundred and eight patients with AEOC were treated under our oncology team during that period. Sixty six patients (61.1%) were in stages III and 42 (38.9%) in stage IV. All patients received NAC; 64 patients (59.3%) had paclitaxel and carboplatin regimen and 44 (40.7%) single agent carboplatin. Response to chemotherapy was assessed after 2 cycles; 81 patients (75%) had partial response, 21 (19.4%) stable disease and 6 (5.6%) progressive disease. Forty one patients (38%) proceeded to IDS after cycle 3 and 11 patients (10.2%) to LDS after cycle 6 but 56 (51.9%) had no debulking surgery (NDS). After a median follow up period of 18 months (6-84 months), 95 patients (88%) had relapsing/progressive disease. The median PFS durations were 13 and 12 months for patients who had either IDS and LDS respectively compared to 8 months for NDS. The 2 years PFS probabilities were 18% for patients who had IDS, 15% for LDS compared to 0% for NDS (P 0.000 Log rank test). The median overall survival (OS) durations were 48, 33 and 18 months for patients who had IDS, LDS and NDS respectively. The 2 years OS probabilities were 75% for patients who had either IDS, or LDS compared to 38% for NDS (P.000 Log rank test). Conclusion: In our study, we documented PFS and OS advantages for patients who IDS or LDS compared to NDS and therefore should be considered whenever possible as part of the primary treatment of AEOC patients. Interval debulking surgery (IDS) offers longer duration and higher probabilities of PFS and OS compared to LDS. More patients-therefore- should be selected for IDS. There is a need for improving NAC possibly with integrating target agents and the use of more intensified schedules. ICON8B trial is currently addressing that.

[Loaie El-Helw, Abeda Raiyan, Hanaa Elkhenini, Rajanee Bhana. Integration of Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy and Interval Debulking Surgeries in Patients with Advanced Epithelial Ovarian Cancer: Our Experience. Cancer Biology 2016;6(4):41-47]. ISSN: 2150-1041 (print); ISSN: 2150-105X (online). http://www.cancerbio.net. 6. doi:10.7537/marscbj060416.06.

 

Key words: advanced ovarian cancer-neoadjuvant chemotherapy-surgical debulking

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7

CRISPR and Cancer Biology Research Literatures

 

Ma Hongbao *, Margaret Young **, Zhu Yucui ***, Yang Yan *, Zhu Huaijie ****

 

* Brookdale University Hospital and Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York 11212, USA, ma8080@gmail.com; ** Cambridge, MA 02138, USA; *** Department of Dermatology, Columbia University Medical Center, 630 West, 168th Street, New York, New York 10032, USA; **** The 2nd Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, 2 Jingba Road, Zhengzhou, Henan 450014, China. jacksun689@gmail.com, yz81@columbia.edu; 011-86-150-3711-5732

 

Abstract: Cancer is the general name for a group of more than 100 diseases. Although there are many kinds of cancer, all cancers start because abnormal cells grow out of control. Untreated cancers can cause serious illness and death. The body is made up of trillions of living cells. Normal body cells grow, divide, and die in an orderly fashion. During the early years of a person’s life, normal cells divide faster to allow the person to grow. After the person becomes an adult, most cells divide only to replace worn-out or dying cells or to repair injuries. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) are segments of prokaryotic DNA containing short, repetitive base sequences. Each repetition is followed by short segments of spacer DNA from previous exposures to foreign DNA. Small clusters of cas (CRISPR-associated system) genes are located next to CRISPR sequences. CRISPR-Cas9 is a new powerful technique for the gene editing target. This article introduces recent research reports as references in the related studies.

[Ma H, Young M, Zhu Y, Yang Y, Zhu H. CRISPR and Cancer Biology Research Literatures. Cancer Biology 2016;6(4):48-108]. ISSN: 2150-1041 (print); ISSN: 2150-105X (online). http://www.cancerbio.net. 7. doi:10.7537/marscbj060416.07.

 

Key words: cancer; life; research; literature; cell; CRISPR; Cas9

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8

Quantum and Cancer Biology Research Literatures

 

Ma Hongbao *, Margaret Young **, Zhu Yucui ***, Yang Yan *, Zhu Huaijie ****

 

* Brookdale University Hospital and Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York 11212, USA, ma8080@gmail.com; ** Cambridge, MA 02138, USA; *** Department of Dermatology, Columbia University Medical Center, 630 West, 168th Street, New York, New York 10032, USA; **** The 2nd Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, 2 Jingba Road, Zhengzhou, Henan 450014, China. jacksun689@gmail.com, yz81@columbia.edu; 011-86-150-3711-5732

 

Abstract: Cancer is the general name for a group of more than 100 diseases. Although there are many kinds of cancer, all cancers start because abnormal cells grow out of control. Untreated cancers can cause serious illness and death. The body is made up of trillions of living cells. Normal body cells grow, divide, and die in an orderly fashion. During the early years of a person’s life, normal cells divide faster to allow the person to grow. After the person becomes an adult, most cells divide only to replace worn-out or dying cells or to repair injuries. Quantum theory has a significant relationship to the cancer biology. This article introduces recent research reports as references in the related studies.

[Ma H, Young M, Zhu Y, Yang Y, Zhu H. CRISPR and Cancer Biology Research Literatures. Cancer Biology 2016;6(4):109-174]. ISSN: 2150-1041 (print); ISSN: 2150-105X (online). http://www.cancerbio.net. 8. doi:10.7537/marscbj060416.08.

 

Key words: cancer; life; research; literature; cell; CRISPR; Cas9

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9

To Assessment on Prospective and Confront of Nanomachines – A Conceptual View

 

Anandan K1, Dr Suresh Prabhu P2

 

1.  Research Scholar, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Anna University Chennai, Tamilnadu, India

2.  Director, Mechanical Sciences, United Institute of Technology, Coimbatore, India

E mail: researchsureshprabhu@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Nanomachines are devices built from individual atoms. Some researchers believe that nanomachines will one day be able to enter living cells to fight disease. They also hope to one day build nanomachines that will be able to rearrange atoms in order to construct new objects. If they succeed, nanomachines could be used to literally turn dirt into food and perhaps eliminate poverty. In this article we’ll outline some of the possible uses of nanomachines. I will then assess some of the problems involved in producing such machines. One of the problems we’ll look at is that of producing self-replicating machines. In this manuscript conclusion will be that nanomachines offer humanity hope for the future, so the research should be pursued. However, I will also suggest that the dangers involved in producing self replicating machines outweigh the potential gains and for this reason, self-replicating machines should not be built.

[Anandan K, Suresh Prabhu P. To Assessment on Prospective and Confront of Nanomachines – A Conceptual View. Cancer Biology 2016;6(4):175-179]. ISSN: 2150-1041 (print); ISSN: 2150-105X (online). http://www.cancerbio.net. 9. doi:10.7537/marscbj060416.09.

 

Keyword: Nanomachines, Nanotechnology, Challenges and Opportunities

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10

To Examination on Optimum Utilisation of Kinetic Energy and Operational Features from Tidal Stream Turbine

 

Madan D1, Dr Rajendran M2

 

1.  Research Scholar, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Anna University Chennai, Tamilnadu, India

2.  Professor and Head, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Government College of Technology, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India.

Email: madan.research@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Tidal stream energy represents a large resource along the power inflow of a current follows a cubic law and the tidal stream energy is only attractive where the current exceeds 2m/s during a sufficient time along the year. Some examples of the theoretical resource are shown for different sites and tide amplitude. The tidal stream velocity varies along the day and the month. The theoretical output is discussed for a typical site in terms of instantaneous power and annual production. For a given site and rotor diameter, economical factors invite to limit the electrical capacity to an economical optimum. The main features of the Marenergie type of tidal stream turbine are presented. The design has been governed by the following considerations: (a) This source of renewable energy must have an acceptable cost, so the overall concept must be economically viable (b) The tidal turbine must work in a submarine environment where maintenance is very difficult and the machinery must be made as simple as possible (c) All marine operations for installation and maintenance must take into account the strong currents prevailing in the potential sites (d) A compromise must be found between the capital cost and the yearly energy production and (e) The interaction of the waves with the current must be considered.

[Madan D, Rajendran M. To Examination on Optimum Utilisation of Kinetic Energy and Operational Features from Tidal Stream Turbine. Cancer Biology 2016;6(4):180-184]. ISSN: 2150-1041 (print); ISSN: 2150-105X (online). http://www.cancerbio.net. 10. doi:10.7537/marscbj060416.10.

 

Keywords: Tidal, turbines, stream, current, rotor and wave

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11

A comparison between Curie temperature of nano and bulk Al doped nickel ferrite

 

O. RAHMANi

 

Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Islamic Azad University, Takestan, Iran.

*omid_325@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Nanocrystalline Al-doped nickel ferrite NiAl0.5Fe1.5O4 has been synthesized by sol-gel method. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed that the powder obtained is single phase with spinel structure. Average crystallite size has been calculated by Scherrer's formula. Magnetic hysteresis loop was measured at room temperature with a maximum applied field of 8000 Oe. The Curie temperature (Tc) obtained by Faraday balance. The results show that magnetization decreases whit decreasing of particle size and Curie temperature increases.

[Kharkwal G, Mehrotra P, Rawat YS. A comparison between Curie temperature of nano and bulk Al doped nickel ferrite. Cancer Biology 2016;6(4):185-187]. ISSN: 2150-1041 (print); ISSN: 2150-105X (online). http://www.cancerbio.net. 11. doi:10.7537/marscbj060416.11.

 

Keywords: Sol-gel; Ni-Al ferrite; Nanocrystalline; Magnetic properties; Curie temperature.

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12

Angiogenesis in astrocytomas: An immunohistochemical study of VEGF, factor VIII, and COX-2 expression

 

Omnia MK Rizk1, Eman M. Saied2, Dalia ES Abd El-Maqusod3

 

1Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Egypt

2Pathology Department - Faculty of Medicine - Kafrelsheikh University, Egypt

3El-Menshawy General Hospital, Egypt

omnia_kamelrizk@outlook.com

 

Abstract: Background & aim: Astrocytomas are histologically classified into grades I through IV on the basis of cellularity, nuclear atypia, mitotic activity, pseudopalisading necrosis and/ or microvascular proliferation. Angiogenesis plays an important role in the growth and progression of asrtocytomas that exhibit marked and aberrant blood vessel formation indicating angiogenic endothelial cells as a potential target for tumor treatment. Materials & methods: This work was designed to study the role of angiogenesis in the growth and progression of astrocytomas, by studying the immunohistochemical expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), factor VIII, and Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) on 78 retrospective cases of astrocytoma. Results: VEGF immunoreactivity was detected 87.2% of the studied cases, while 82.1% of the studied cases showed positive COX-2 expression. The expression of both VEGF and COX-2 showed significant increase with increasing tumor grade (p < 0.05). The relationship between the tumor grade and microvascular density (MVD) increased significantly (p < 0.05). A significant positive correlation was observed between the immunoreactive scores of VEGF, COX-2, and MVD (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The increase in VEGF expression and MVD in astrocytomas indicates the significant role of angiogenesis in their development and progression. The significant positive association between VEGF expression, MVD, and COX-2 expression suggests that COX-2 contributes to angiogenesis in astrocytomas possibly by upregulation of VEGF.

[Omnia MK Rizk, Eman M. Saied, Dalia ES Abd El-Maqusod Angiogenesis in astrocytomas: An immunohistochemical study of VEGF, factor VIII, and COX-2 expression. Cancer Biology 2016;6(4):188-195]. ISSN: 2150-1041 (print); ISSN: 2150-105X (online). http://www.cancerbio.net. 12. doi:10.7537/marscbj060416.12.

 

Keywords: Astrocytoma, COX-2, VEGF, factor VIII

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The manuscripts in this issue were presented as online first for peer-review starting from October 18, 2016

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